A Swiss Christian converts to Islam, Reciting The Quran,
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The word Islam is derived from the word silm, which means reconciliation, peace, submission, and deliverance. Before Islam, all previous revelations had been sent to particular nations. Each of these religions either had the characteristic of being a national religion or was later transformed into a national religion. For the first time in human history Islam came as the religion for all humanity and the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was the first to be honored with a duty toward all humanity with Almighty God addressing him as:
"And We have sent you to all the men as nothing but a bearer of good news and as a warner, but most men do not know. (Saba 34:28)
Indeed, the Prophet is a prophet of compassion sent not just for humankind, but for all realms of existence.
And We have sent you but as a mercy to the worlds. (Anbiya 21:107)"
Islam is the religion of unity. That is to say, in the field of faith, this is a religion based on believing only in God, the Lord and Sovereign. Unity, in terms of world vision, the view of life and the social system all call for the unity of humanity, brother and sisterhood, equality in basic rights and the abolition of all discrimination on basis of language, color, race, or family or lineage
"Those who listen to the word, then follow the best of it. give good tidings to them. They are those whome Allah has guided(towards Right Path) and those are men (of wisdom) understanding" Ch 39:18
Islam does not like anyone to be force to believe in its messages. The quran says…
"And if your Lord had pleased, surely all those who are in the earth would have believed, all of them; will you then force men till they become believers? 10:99
This shows Islam aimed at spreading its message throught Peaceful means by patient persuation and logical reasoning.
Call to the way of your Lord with wisdom and goodly exhortation, and have disputations with them in the best manner; surely your Lord best knows those who go astray from His path, and He knows best those who follow the right way. 16:125 quran
There is no compulsion in religion. The right direction is henceforth distinct from error. And he who rejecteth false deities and believeth in Allah hath grasped a firm handhold which will never break. Allah is Hearer, Knower. 16:125 quran
In this way islam is also insists upon its follower to maintain good and amicable relations with NON Muslims.
Thus Muslims are allowed only to fight in SELF DEFENCE against oppression and tyranny and in that also there are various rules that they had to follow.
As Quran says.
And what has happened to you that you would not fight in the way of Allah and of the weak among the men and the women and the children, of those who say: Our Lord! Cause us to go forth from this town, whose people are oppressors and give us from Thee a guardian and give us from Thee a helper!” (4: 75)
It means during the fights Muslims were forbidden to kill women, children, the old and sick and those who did not participated in fighting and also not allowed to kill wounded enemies and those who run away from battle field.
Islam also prohibits to cut essential supplies ie Water? Food ect from reaching the enemy. Muslims were ordained to treat the prisnors of wars with kindness.
And feed with food the needy wretch, the orphan and the prisoner, for love of Allah, 76:8
More important is if enemy say peace then Muslims are not allowed to continue war.
“And if they incline to peace, then incline to it and trust in Allah; surely He is the Hearing and the Knowing;
“And if they intend to deceive you- then surely Allah is sufficient for you; He it is who strengthened you with his help and with the believers;
“And united their hearts; had you spent all that is in the earth, you could not have united their hearts, but Allah united them, surely He is Mighty, Wise.
“O Prophet! Allah is sufficient for you and (for) such of the believers as follow you.” (8: 61-64)
During to caliphate of Imam ali ibne abi talib. maula ali (a.s) ordered his governor to care for all the people and said there are two type of subjects.
Those who are your brethern in faith(muslims) and those who are your brethern in humanity(Non muslims).
What can be a better example of Brotherhood? That is why a non muslim scholar from india Swami vivekanad said..
"My experience is that if ever any religion approaches to this equality in an appreciable manner. It is Islam and Islam Alone."
Letter of vivekanand pg379