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PL/SQL: Cursors using FOR loop
 
05:10
In this tutorial, you'll learn h.ow to write a cursor using for loop and the advantage of it. PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 18541 radhikaravikumar
Oracle dynamic sql select while opening ref cursor sys ref cursor Part 8
 
07:57
Oracle SQL PLSQL and Unix Shell Scripting
Views: 1686 Sridhar Raghavan
PL/SQL tutorial 9: IF THEN ELSE (IF-ELSE) Statement in PL/SQL by Manish Sharma
 
04:12
3rd tutorial in the series explaining IF-THEN-ELSE statement in Oracle PL/SQL with Example. Enjoy ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ►►►LINKS◄◄◄ Blog : http://bit.ly/if-then-else Previous Tutorial ► IF THEN Statement https://youtu.be/IWvuFD6eD30 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►►►Let's Get Free Uber Cab◄◄◄ Use Referral Code UberRebellionRider and get $20 free for your first ride. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►►►Help Me In Getting A Job◄◄◄ ►Help Me In Getting A Good Job By Connecting With Me on My LinkedIn and Endorsing My Skills. All My Contact Info is Down Below. You Can Also Refer Me To Your Company Thanks ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►Make sure you SUBSCRIBE and be the 1st one to see my videos! ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ►►►Find me on Social Media◄◄◄ Follow What I am up to as it happens on https://twitter.com/rebellionrider https://www.facebook.com/imthebhardwaj http://instagram.com/rebellionrider https://plus.google.com/+Rebellionrider http://in.linkedin.com/in/mannbhardwaj/ http://rebellionrider.tumblr.com/ http://www.pinterest.com/rebellionrider/ You can also Email me at for E-mail address please check About section Please please LIKE and SHARE my videos it makes me happy. Thanks for liking, commenting, sharing and watching more of our videos This is Manish from RebellionRider.com ♥ I LOVE ALL MY VIEWERS AND SUBSCRIBERS
Views: 68696 Manish Sharma
PL/SQL: Ref Cursors
 
09:28
In this tutorial, you'll learn what is ref cursors. PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 28359 radhikaravikumar
Cursor For Loop in PL/SQL - Explicit Cursor - Parameterized Cursors - Explicit Cursor Orcle
 
48:00
Cursor for loop is a very powerful looping structure for Oracle explicit cursor. Parameterized cursors help to make the program more efficient. Cursor for loop when used for explicit cursor makes the program compact and easy to read and write. #Crazy4DB #OraclePLSQL #LearnPLSQL #Crazy4DB #MunshiSir #LearnOracle Other PL/SQL videos : PL/SQL cursors : https://youtu.be/pZQMjWYpWSs PL/SQL conditional Statements : https://youtu.be/5e6eqYtgJAc PL/SQL Basic : https://youtu.be/5fXsfOTRSHc PL/SQL Exception : https://youtu.be/tahOBL8Ogss PL/SQL %TYPE Anchored type : https://youtu.be/tbKvzhdLmMU PL/SQL Record Data type : https://youtu.be/Ev7uriDI96A PL/SQL Loops : https://youtu.be/IVmbdR2Dbz4 SQL Transaction : https://youtu.be/ZjK31EuWFsY PL/SQL Loops : https://youtu.be/IVmbdR2Dbz4 Video Index : What is explicit cursor : 2.00 Why use explicit cursor : 3:39 Step of Explicit Cursor : 7:43 Explicit Cursor attributes : 14:06 Explicit cursor example : 19:40 Cursor For loop : 27:00 Parameterized cursor : 34:52 Cursor for locking for update nowait : 38:49 Program code : Use of explicit cursor with simple loop ==================================== declare n number; s number; e emp.ename%type; cursor c1 is select distinct sal from emp where sal is not null order by sal desc; cursor c2 is select ename from emp where sal = s; begin n := '&EnterRank'; open c1; fetch c1 into s; while c1%found loop if c1%rowcount = n then open c2; loop fetch c2 into e; if c2%found then dbms_output.put_line(e||' '||s); else exit; end if; end loop; exit; end if; fetch c1 into s; end loop; dbms_output.put_line('no more emp'); exception when value_error then dbms_output.put_line('value must be numeric'); end; Using Cursor for loop ================================== declare n number; s number; cursor c1 is select distinct sal from emp where sal is not null order by sal desc; cursor c2 is select ename from emp where sal = s; begin n := '&EnterRank'; for vsal in c1 loop if c1%rowcount = n then s := vsal.sal; for vname in c2 loop dbms_output.put_line(vname.ename||' '||s); end loop; end if; end loop; dbms_output.put_line('no more emp'); exception when value_error then dbms_output.put_line('value must be numeric'); end; Parameterized cursor example ==================================== declare n number; cursor c1 is select distinct sal from emp where sal is not null order by sal desc; cursor c2 (s emp.sal%type) is select ename from emp where sal = s; begin n := '&EnterRank'; for vsal in c1 loop if c1%rowcount = n then for vname in c2(vsal.sal) loop dbms_output.put_line(vname.ename||' '||vsal.sal); end loop; end if; end loop; dbms_output.put_line('no more emp'); exception when value_error then dbms_output.put_line('value must be numeric'); end; Locking for Transaction by explicit cursor ====================================== declare vdno emp.deptno%type; incr number; lck exception; pragma exception_init(lck, -00054); cursor c1 (pdno emp.deptno%type) is select * from emp where deptno = pdno for update nowait; begin vdno := '&DeptNo'; incr := '&Increment'; open c1(vdno); update emp set sal = sal + incr where deptno = vdno; if sql%rowcount [greater than] 0 then dbms_output.put_line(sql%rowcount||' rows updated'); else dbms_output.put_line('department does not exist'); end if; close c1; exception when value_error then dbms_output.put_line('check input values'); when lck then dbms_output.put_line('rows locked - try later'); end;
Views: 64 Crazy4 DB
Learn Oracle | How to open ISQL Plus for the first time
 
03:06
Pebbles present, Learn Oracle 10g with Step By Step Video Tutorials. Learn Oracle 10g Tutorial series contains the following videos : Learn Oracle - History of Oracle Learn Oracle - What is Oracle - Why do we need Oracle Learn Oracle - What is a Database Learn Oracle - What is Grid Computing Learn Oracle - What is Normalization Learn Oracle - What is ORDBMS Learn Oracle - What is RDBMS Learn Oracle - Alias Names, Concatenation, Distinct Keyword Learn Oracle - Controlling and Managing User Access (Data Control Language) Learn Oracle - Introduction to SQL Learn Oracle - Oracle 10g New Data Types Learn Oracle - How to Alter a Table using SQL Learn Oracle - How to Create a Package in PL SQL Learn Oracle - How to Create a Report in SQL Plus Learn Oracle - How to Create a Table using SQL - Not Null, Unique Key, Primary Key Learn Oracle - How to Create a Table using SQL Learn Oracle - How to Create a Trigger in PL SQL Learn Oracle - How to Delete Data from a Table using SQL Learn Oracle - How to Drop and Truncate a Table using SQL Learn Oracle - How to Insert Data in a Table using SQL Learn Oracle - How to open ISQL Plus for the first time Learn Oracle - How to Open SQL Plus for the First Time Learn Oracle - How to Update a Table using SQL Learn Oracle - How to use Aggregate Functions in SQL Learn Oracle - How to use Functions in PL SQL Learn Oracle - How to use Group By, Having Clause in SQL Learn Oracle - How to Use Joins, Cross Join, Cartesian Product in SQL Learn Oracle - How to use Outer Joins (Left, Right, Full) in SQL Learn Oracle - How to use the Character Functions, Date Functions in SQL Learn Oracle - How to use the Merge Statement in SQL Learn Oracle - How to use the ORDER BY Clause with the Select Statement Learn Oracle - How to use the SELECT Statement Learn Oracle - How to use the Transactional Control Statements in SQL Learn Oracle - How to use PL SQL Learn Oracle - Data Types in PL SQL Learn Oracle - Exception Handling in PL SQL Learn Oracle - PL SQL Conditional Logics Learn Oracle - PL SQL Cursor Types - Explicit Cursor, Implicit Cursor Learn Oracle - PL SQL Loops Learn Oracle - Procedure Creation in PL SQL Learn Oracle - Select Statement with WHERE Cause Learn Oracle - SQL Operators and their Precedence Learn Oracle - Using Case Function, Decode Function in SQL Learn Oracle - Using Logical Operators in the WHERE Clause of the Select Statement Learn Oracle - Using Rollup Function, Cube Function Learn Oracle - Using Set Operators in SQL Learn Oracle - What are the Different SQL Data Types Learn Oracle - What are the different types of Databases Visit Pebbles Official Website - http://www.pebbles.in Subscribe to our Channel – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNNjWVsQqaMYccY044vtHJw?sub_confirmation=1 Engage with us on Facebook at https://www.facebook.com/PebblesChennai Please Like, Share, Comment & Subscribe
Views: 7093 Pebbles Tutorials
PL/SQL: Ref cursor Types
 
07:57
In this tutorial, you'll learn the types of ref cursors.. PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 13040 radhikaravikumar
PL/SQL: Weak Vs Strong RefCursor && Normal cursor Vs RefCursor
 
10:26
In this tutorial, you'll learn Weak Vs Strong Ref Cursor && Normal cursor Vs Ref Cursor... PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 9451 radhikaravikumar
SQL tutorial 49: CASE - Simple Case Expression in Oracle Database (1/2)
 
06:34
Case expression let you perform IF-THEN-ELSE in oracle database. There are two type of case in oracle simple case expression and searched case expression. This SQL Tutorial 49 is about Simple Case Expression. ● What Is Case Expression ● Syntax of Simple Case Expression ● Query 1. Column name of a table as Search expression in CASE ● Query 2. String as Search expression in CASE Celebrating 1000 subscribers. Thanks a lot guys for all your love and support. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ►►►LINKS◄◄◄ Blog: http://bit.ly/simple-case-expression ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Copy Cloud referral link || Use this link to join copy cloud and get 20GB of free storage https://copy.com?r=kb4rc1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►Make sure you SUBSCRIBE and be the first one to see my videos! -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Amazon Wishlist: http://bit.ly/wishlist-amazon ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ►►►Find me on Social Media◄◄◄ Follow What I am up to as it happens on https://twitter.com/rebellionrider https://www.facebook.com/imthebhardwaj http://instagram.com/rebellionrider https://plus.google.com/+Rebellionrider http://in.linkedin.com/in/mannbhardwaj/ http://rebellionrider.tumblr.com/ http://www.pinterest.com/rebellionrider/ You can also Email me at [email protected] Please please LIKE and SHARE my videos it makes me happy. Thanks for liking, commenting, sharing and watching more of our videos This is Manish from RebellionRider.com ♥ I LOVE ALL MY VIEWERS AND SUBSCRIBERS
Views: 40403 Manish Sharma
Cursors in sql server   Part 63
 
13:58
Text version of the video http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2013/01/cursors-in-sql-server-part-63.html Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2013/09/part-63-cursors-in-sql-server.html All SQL Server Text Articles http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/p/free-sql-server-video-tutorials-for.html All SQL Server Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/p/sql-server.html All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in English https://www.youtube.com/user/kudvenkat/playlists?view=1&sort=dd All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in Arabic https://www.youtube.com/c/KudvenkatArabic/playlists Relational Database Management Systems, including sql server are very good at handling data in SETS. For example, the following "UPDATE" query, updates a set of rows that matches the condition in the "WHERE" clause at the same time. Update tblProductSales Set UnitPrice = 50 where ProductId = 101 However, if there is ever a need to process the rows, on a row-by-row basis, then cursors are your choice. Cursors are very bad for performance, and should be avoided always. Most of the time, cursors can be very easily replaced using joins. There are different types of cursors in sql server as listed below. We will talk about the differences between these cursor types in a later video session. 1. Forward-Only 2. Static 3. Keyset 4. Dynamic Let us now look at a simple example of using sql server cursor to process one row at time. We will be using tblProducts and tblProductSales tables, for this example. On my machine, there are 400,000 records in tblProducts and 600,000 records in tblProductSales tables. If you want to learn about generating huge amounts of random test data, please watch Part - 61 in sql server video tutorial. The link is below. http://www.youtube.com/user/kudvenkat/videos?flow=grid&view=1 Cursor Example: Let us say, I want to update the UNITPRICE column in tblProductSales table, based on the following criteria 1. If the ProductName = 'Product - 55', Set Unit Price to 55 2. If the ProductName = 'Product - 65', Set Unit Price to 65 3. If the ProductName is like 'Product - 100%', Set Unit Price to 1000 For the SQL code samples used in the demo please visit my blog at the following link http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2013/01/cursors-in-sql-server-part-63.html The cursor will loop thru each row in tblProductSales table. As there are 600,000 rows, to be processed on a row-by-row basis, it takes around 40 to 45 seconds on my machine. We can achieve this very easily using a join, and this will significantly increase the performance. We will discuss about this in our next video session. To check if the rows have been correctly updated, please use the following query. Select Name, UnitPrice from tblProducts join tblProductSales on tblProducts.Id = tblProductSales.ProductId where (Name='Product - 55' or Name='Product - 65' or Name like 'Product - 100%')
Views: 224087 kudvenkat
Introduction to Oracle: PL-SQL - Assigning a Value to a Variable with a Query
 
04:38
Introduction to Oracle: PL-SQL - Assigning a Value to a Variable with a Query
Views: 707 David Hays
SQL tutorial 19: ON DELETE SET NULL clause of Foreign Key By Manish Sharma (RebellionRider)
 
07:44
SQL Tutorial 19 : ON DELETE SET NULL foreign key Clause. Links used in the tutorial On delete set null website article [ download SQL script from same link] : http://www.rebellionrider.com/on-delete-set-null.htm Foreign Key Tutorial Video : http://youtu.be/0nbkBI5r3Gw Foreign Key Tutorial Blog : http://www.rebellionrider.com/sql-foreign-key.htm This video is the part of foreign key video In this sql tutorial you will learn the referential clause ON DELETE SET NULL of foreign key. On Delete Set null clause guarantee the relation integrity in foreign key/ Tool used in this tutorial is SQL Developer. This tutorial series is part of SQL expert exam certification training. if you are preparing for SQL certification you can use my tutorials. This SQL Tutorial is a part of free training. Copy Cloud referral link || Use this link to join copy cloud and get 20GB of free storage https://copy.com?r=j7eYO7 Contacts E-Mail [email protected] Twitter https://twitter.com/rebellionrider Instagram http://instagram.com/rebellionrider Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/imthebhardwaj Linkedin. http://in.linkedin.com/in/mannbhardwaj/ Thanks for liking, commenting, sharing and watching more of our videos This is Manish from RebellionRider.com
Views: 50093 Manish Sharma
Oracle NVL Function Explained with Examples
 
09:25
https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-nvl-nvl2-logical-functions/ The Oracle NVL function allows you to check a value and return a different value if that value is NULL. It’s great for using another value if the first one is NULL or an optional value, for example people’s phone numbers. It’s also good alongside aggregate functions and grouping so you can see what the difference is between a subtotal row and an actual NULL value. The syntax of the Oracle NVL function is: NVL( check_value, replace_value ) The parameters are: - check_value (mandatory): This is the value that is displayed to the user. It is also the value that is checked for NULL. - replace_value (mandatory): This is the value that appears if the check_value is NULL. The function can use many different data types as parameters: string, date, or numeric. However, both parameters need to be the same type. For more information about the Oracle NVL function, including all of the SQL shown in this video and the examples, read the related article here: https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-nvl-nvl2-logical-functions/
Views: 708 Database Star
DYNAMIC SQL WITH EXECUTE IMMEDIATE IN ORACLE PL/SQL WITH EXAMPLE
 
21:53
The audio and video now synced. Ever tried creating a table inside a PL SQL block, or a function or a procedure? If yes, then you would know that it would raise an error, as DDL statements are not allowed inside a PL/SQL Block. So the solution to such a case, where you want to generate tables, or sequences or want to execute any DDL statement on the fly, then use synamic sql. Dynamic SQL statment will allow you to create state statements on the fly and then you can execute them using the execute immediate statement. This video tutorial demonstrates on this topic of using synamic sql with execute immediate in a PL/SQL block.
Views: 5553 Kishan Mashru
COALESCE IN ORACLE SQL
 
06:50
This video is the 4th video in the series of 'working with null', this video explains the working of the coalesce function in oracle sql. Also the video explains the use of coalesce function in oracle sql queries by perfect simple and easy to understand examples. COALESCE returns the first non-null expr in the expression list. You must specify at least two expressions. If all occurrences of expr evaluate to null, then the function returns null. Oracle Database uses short-circuit evaluation. The database evaluates each expr value and determines whether it is NULL, rather than evaluating all of the expr values before determining whether any of them is NULL. If all occurrences of expr are numeric datatype or any non numeric datatype that can be implicitly converted to a numeric datatype, then Oracle Database determines the argument with the highest numeric precedence, implicitly converts the remaining arguments to that datatype, and returns that datatype.
Views: 1123 Kishan Mashru
ORACLE SQL AND PL/SQL INTERVIEW QUESTION : SUBQUERY WITH NULL / NOT IN / NOT EXISTS OR OUTER JOIN
 
08:36
This video demonstrates the oracle sql interview question where one need to use either not in, not exists or an outer join to get the desired result. For example if one is asked to fetch records from department table where department_id is not present in employee table
Views: 2315 Kishan Mashru
Top 30 PLSQL interview questions and answers
 
10:08
Most frequently asked questions: How to get distinct entries from the database? How to get results of any query which is sorted in any order? What is a mutating table error and how can you get around it? Describe the use of %ROWTYPE and %TYPE in PL/SQL What packages (if any) has Oracle provided for use by developers?Describe the use of PL/SQL tables When is a declare statement needed ? In what order should a open/fetch/loop set of commands in a PL/SQL block be implemented if you use the %NOTFOUND cursor variable in the exit when statement? Why? What are SQLCODE and SQLERRM and why are they important for PL/SQL developers? How can you find within a PL/SQL block, if a cursor is open? How can you generate debugging output from PL/SQL? What are the types of triggers? What are two parts of package ? what is the difference between to_char and to_date functions? How do you optimize SQL queries ? What are nested triggers ? What is a bitmap index? What is the usage of NVL? write a query for finding the length of the sting. please explain database architecture. How to get employee name from employee table which is the fifth highest salary of the table? Write a query to generate target column. Can we use out parameter in function? What will be the output for the below Query Select 'High' from dual where null = null; what is the difference between stored procedure and packaged procedure What are the steps you take to tune(performance tuning) the code in plsql? what is self join and how it works?? Can you alter procedure with in package? What is substr()&instr()? Difference between case and decode? Can you use sysdate in check constraints? If no, why? Difference between column level constraints & table level constraints? What is optimizer? What is nested_loop join? What is pivot operator? Tell me some oracle 10g features? What is m_view? What is master & detail tables? What is sqlcode and sqlerrm? Diff b/w procedure & packages? What are the dis_adv of packages? How to retrieve top 3 salaries from each departments? Can you update complex view? If no, why? When should rebuild one an index? Tell me some errors? Tell me some restrictions on cursor variables? What is context switching? What is bulk collect? What is nullif()? What is mutating error? What are the module's , you are working? Which will fire default first statement level or row level trigger? What is bulkcollect? And any restrictions in bulkcollect? What is the use of limit clause in bulkcollect? How to debugg your code? How to trace error handling? How to find which line error was raised? What are the methods there in save exceptions? What is functional based index? Write syntax? How to update complex view? Subscribe here : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCofhGV_j_4cVGa9R08MsuXQ
Views: 9596 Oracle PL/SQL
PL/SQL: Mutating Triggers Part-2
 
08:41
In this tutorial, you'll learn... PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 15014 radhikaravikumar
NULLIF FUNCTION IN ORACLE SQL WITH EXAMPLE
 
03:24
This video is the 3rd video in the series of 'working with null in oracle sql', the video demonstrates the use of NULLIF function in oracle sql, and how we can use it in day to day coding time. The video explains the function with perfect easy to understand example.
Views: 1532 Kishan Mashru
PL/SQL: Sysrefcoursor
 
08:07
In this tutorial, you'll learn how to make us of sys_refcursor PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 6910 radhikaravikumar
SQL tutorial 73: NVL2 SQL null function By Manish Sharma RebellionRider
 
03:01
Part 2: SQL Null Function NVL2 learn the concepts of NVL null function in this tutorial with examples and all the Interview concepts covered ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ►►►LINKS◄◄◄ Blog : http://bit.ly/nvl2-null-function Previous Tutorial ► NVL function https://youtu.be/aRoTR5Jn6K0 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►►►Let's Get Free Uber Cab◄◄◄ Use Referral Code UberRebellionRider and get $20 free for your first ride. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►►►Help Me In Getting A Job◄◄◄ ►Help Me In Getting A Good Job By Connecting With Me on My LinkedIn and Endorsing My Skills. All My Contact Info is Down Below. You Can Also Refer Me To Your Company Thanks ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Copy Cloud referral link || Use this link to join copy cloud and get 20GB of free storage https://copy.com?r=kb4rc1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►Make sure you SUBSCRIBE and be the 1st one to see my videos! -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Amazon Wishlist: http://bit.ly/wishlist-amazon ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ►►►Find me on Social Media◄◄◄ Follow What I am up to as it happens on https://twitter.com/rebellionrider https://www.facebook.com/imthebhardwaj http://instagram.com/rebellionrider https://plus.google.com/+Rebellionrider http://in.linkedin.com/in/mannbhardwaj/ http://rebellionrider.tumblr.com/ http://www.pinterest.com/rebellionrider/ You can also Email me at for E-mail address please check About section Please please LIKE and SHARE my videos it makes me happy. Thanks for liking, commenting, sharing and watching more of our videos This is Manish from RebellionRider.com ♥ I LOVE ALL MY VIEWERS AND SUBSCRIBERS
Views: 22672 Manish Sharma
HOW TO RETURN MULTIPLE VALUES FROM A PROCEDURE IN ORACLE PL/SQL? (USING OUT PARAMETERS)
 
04:46
This video tutorial explains how an oracle procedure can return multiple values with a proper example. The video tutorial shows how this problem can be tacked using simple and easy to understand out parameters!!!
Views: 15248 Kishan Mashru
SQL: Extract function
 
03:38
In this tutorial, you'll learn how to make use of extract function. PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 4616 radhikaravikumar
Oracle PL/SQL - IF THEN ELSIF Statement
 
09:07
http://plsqlzerotopro.com This tutorial explains IF THEN ELSE IF statement.
Views: 6340 HandsonERP
SQL: Transaction Part-1
 
06:05
In this tutorial, you'll learn what are transaction and nature of transaction. PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 3656 radhikaravikumar
PL/SQL: Mutating Triggers Part-1
 
06:24
In this tutorial, you'll learn... PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 25306 radhikaravikumar
C# Tutorial 11:Database values in textbox if select Combobox
 
12:15
------------------Online Courses to learn---------------------------- Java - https://bit.ly/2H6wqXk C++ - https://bit.ly/2q8VWl1 AngularJS - https://bit.ly/2qebsLu Python - https://bit.ly/2Eq0VSt C- https://bit.ly/2HfZ6L8 Android - https://bit.ly/2qaRSAS Linux - https://bit.ly/2IwOuqz AWS Certified Solutions Architect - https://bit.ly/2JrGoAF Modern React with Redux - https://bit.ly/2H6wDtA MySQL - https://bit.ly/2qcF63Z ----------------------Follow--------------------------------------------- My Website - http://www.codebind.com My Blog - https://goo.gl/Nd2pFn My Facebook Page - https://goo.gl/eLp2cQ Google+ - https://goo.gl/lvC5FX Twitter - https://twitter.com/ProgrammingKnow Pinterest - https://goo.gl/kCInUp Text Case Converter - https://goo.gl/pVpcwL -------------------------Stuff I use to make videos ------------------- Stuff I use to make videos Windows notebook – http://amzn.to/2zcXPyF Apple MacBook Pro – http://amzn.to/2BTJBZ7 Ubuntu notebook - https://amzn.to/2GE4giY Desktop - http://amzn.to/2zct252 Microphone – http://amzn.to/2zcYbW1 notebook mouse – http://amzn.to/2BVs4Q3 ------------------Facebook Links ---------------------------------------- http://fb.me/ProgrammingKnowledgeLearning/ http://fb.me/AndroidTutorialsForBeginners http://fb.me/Programmingknowledge http://fb.me/CppProgrammingLanguage http://fb.me/JavaTutorialsAndCode http://fb.me/SQLiteTutorial http://fb.me/UbuntuLinuxTutorials http://fb.me/EasyOnlineConverter ----------------------------------------------------------------------- how to bind combobox to textbox in C# ComboBox and TextBox‎ C# How to show combo box selected value in a text box‎ C# selecting an item in combobox and display corresponding Populate combobox from database C# How to get data in combobox from database? Populating a Combobox from a Dictionary How to fill different ComboBoxes in a DataGridView C# code add database column to datagridview combobox C# Populate combobox from database How to get data in combobox from database? Populating a Combobox from a Dictionary How to fill different ComboBoxes in a DataGridView code add database column to datagridview combobox Enter values into combobox from database‎ Enter values into combobox from database‎ C#
Views: 211365 ProgrammingKnowledge
Oracle PL/SQL Tutorials |  Oracle PL:SQL Control Structure Selection | by Mr.Vaman Deshmukh
 
12:28
Oracle PL/SQL Tutorials | Oracle PL:SQL Control Structure Selection | by Mr.Vaman Deshmukh ** For Online Training Registration: https://goo.gl/r6kJbB ► Call: +91-8179191999 ► Visit Our Website for Classroom Training: https://nareshit.in ► For Online Training: https://nareshit.com/ -------------------------- ► About NareshIT: "Naresh IT is having 14+ years of experience in software training industry and the best Software Training Institute for online training, classroom training, weekend training, corporate training of Hadoop, Salesforce, AWS, DevOps, Spark, Data Science, Python, Tableau, RPA ,Java, C#.NET, ASP.NET, Oracle, Testing Tools, Silver light, Linq, SQL Server, Selenium, Android, iPhone, C Language, C++, PHP and Digital Marketing in USA,Hyderabad, Chennai and Vijayawada,Bangalore India which provides online training across all the locations -------------------------- ► Our Online Training Features: 1.Training with Real-Time Experts 2.Industry Specific Scenario’s 3.Flexible Timings 4.Soft Copy of Material 5. Share Videos of each and every session. -------------------------- Please write back to us at [email protected]/[email protected] or Call us at USA: +1404-232-9879 or India: +918179191999 ** Check The Below Links** ► For Course Reg: https://goo.gl/r6kJbB ► Subscribe to Our Channel: https://goo.gl/q9ozyG ► Circle us on G+: https://plus.google.com/NareshIT ► Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/NareshIT ► Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/nareshitech ► Follow us on Linkedin: https://in.linkedin.com/company/naresh-i-technologies ► Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/nareshitech/
PLS-2: My First PL/SQL Program
 
11:34
For Full Course Experience Please Go To http://mentorsnet.org/course_preview?course_id=5 Full Course Experience Includes 1. Access to course videos and exercises 2. View & manage your progress/pace 3. In-class projects and code reviews 4. Personal guidance from your Mentors Goal is to write your first PL/SQL program. The basic program unit in PL/SQL is the block. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords partition the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. Example of a Block DECLARE bonus NUMBER(8,2); emp_id NUMBER(6) := 100; BEGIN SELECT salary * 0.10 INTO bonus FROM employees WHERE employee_id = emp_id; Exception When NO_DATA_FOUND THEN null ; END; This is a typical PL/SQL block where 10% of salary is selected and stored on a temp variables bonus. If for some reason there is no employee with empid = 100 then the control will come to exception area and the code in the exception area will be executed. These blocks can be entirely separate or nested one within another. The basic units (procedures and functions, also known as subprograms, and anonymous blocks) that make up a PL/SQL program are logical blocks, which can contain any number of nested sub blocks. Therefore, one block can represent a small part of another block, which in turn can be part of the whole unit of code. Anonymous Blocks Anonymous blocks are unnamed blocks. They are declared at the point in an application where they are to be executed and are passed to the PL/SQL engine for execution at run time. You can embed an anonymous block within a pre-compiler program and within iSQL*Plus or Server Manager. Triggers in Oracle Developer components consist of such blocks. Subprograms Subprograms are named PL/SQL blocks that can accept parameters and can be invoked. You can declare them either as procedures or as functions. Generally use a procedure to perform an action and a function to compute a value. You can store subprograms at the server or application level. Using Oracle Developer components (Forms, Reports, and Graphics), you can declare procedures and functions as part of the application (a form or report) and call them from other procedures, functions, and triggers (see next page) within the same application whenever necessary. Note: A function is similar to a procedure, except that a function must return a value.
Views: 66505 Oresoft LWC
PL/SQL: Collections Part-3
 
10:27
In this tutorial, you'll learn you'll learn the continuity of previous collection video. PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 7254 radhikaravikumar
Joins in Oracle PLSql
 
14:41
There are various joins in Oracle SQL. Inner Join, Left Outer Join, Right Outer Join, Full Outer Join. I am in this tutorial tried to explain left and right outer join and how they works. Please feel free to comment if you have any difficulties understanding.
Views: 1989 Subhroneel Ganguly
How to Export Oracle data to Excel file from Oracle Forms 6i | Oracle apps
 
05:23
This is Oracle forms tutorial exporting data using for cursor loop to excel file invoking excel application with OLE2 forms built in package. OLE2 package contains all the stuff to invoke the property, procedures and function within an excel application. It creates the file, add workbook, add worksheet, put data to cells of worksheet and set properties like font size ,font color and font size of the cells. It saves the file as well. How to Export Oracle data to CSV file declare application ole2.obj_type; workbooks ole2.obj_type; workbook ole2.obj_type; worksheets ole2.obj_type; worksheet ole2.obj_type; cell ole2.obj_type; arglist ole2.list_type; row_num number; col_num number; fontObj ole2.obj_type; cursor rec is select empno,ename,sal from emp; procedure SetCellValue(rowid number,colid number,cellValue varchar) is begin arglist := ole2.create_arglist; ole2.add_arg(arglist,rowid); ole2.add_arg(arglist,colid); cell:= ole2.get_obj_property(worksheet,'Cells',arglist); fontObj := ole2.get_obj_property(cell,'Font'); ole2.destroy_arglist(arglist); ole2.set_property(cell,'value',cellValue); ole2.set_property(fontObj,'Size',16); ole2.set_property(fontObj,'BOLD',1); ole2.set_property(fontObj,'ColorIndex',7); ole2.release_obj(cell); end SetCellValue; procedure app_init is begin application := ole2.create_obj('Excel.Application'); ole2.set_property(application,'Visible',true); workbooks := ole2.get_obj_property(application,'workbooks'); workbook := ole2.invoke_obj(workbooks,'add'); worksheets := ole2.get_obj_property(application,'worksheets'); worksheet := ole2.invoke_obj(worksheets,'add'); ole2.set_property(worksheet,'Name','Emp Sheet'); end app_init; procedure save_excel(path varchar,filename varchar) is begin OLE2.Release_Obj(worksheet); OLE2.Release_Obj(worksheets); -- Save the Excel file created If path is not null then Arglist := OLE2.Create_Arglist; OLE2.Add_Arg(Arglist,path||'\'||file_name||'.xls'); OLE2.Invoke(workbook, 'SaveAs', Arglist); OLE2.Destroy_Arglist(Arglist); end if; end save_excel; begin app_init; row_num:=1; col_num:=1; SetCellValue(row_num,col_num,'Emp Code'); col_num:=col_num + 1; SetCellValue(row_num,col_num,'Emp Name'); col_num:=col_num + 1; SetCellValue(row_num,col_num,'Date of Birth'); for i in rec loop row_num:=row_num + 1; col_num:=1; SetCellValue(row_num,col_num,i.empno); col_num:=2; SetCellValue(row_num,col_num,i.ename); col_num:=3; SetCellValue(row_num,col_num,i.sal); end loop; save_excel('d:\excel_export','emp_data'); OLE2.Release_Obj(workbook); OLE2.Release_Obj(workbooks); OLE2.Release_Obj(application); end; *************---------------------------*********************** Query Solved below How to Create excel reports from oracle forms, oracle forms export to excel, how to generate excel file from oracle reports, how to convert oracle report into excel, oracle reports 10g to excel output, How to Create excel reports from oracle report, How to Create EXCEL Report from Oracle forms 10g, export data from oracle to excel using pl sql, how to generate excel file from pl sql, exporting data from oracle sql developer to excel, How to Create EXCEL Report from Oracle Database
Views: 2590 Young India
Difference Between Case and Decode
 
06:03
What is the difference between case and decode ? Important links for Oracle Developers For for SQL - PL/SQL Interview Questions Answers Facebook group https://www.facebook.com/groups/146487615764170/ Download Free PLSQL Interview Books , Documents Videos from here https://www.facebook.com/groups/146487615764170/files/ Free SQL / PLSQL Video on YouTube Channel SUBSCRIBE https://www.youtube.com/c/ramguptaoracle?sub_confirmation=1 Visit oracle forms / report / SQL PLSQL blog http://oracletemple.blogspot.in/ Oracle Community Google+ https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/4mW-jB Join our facebook group https://www.facebook.com/groups/146487615764170/ Follow us on Twitter https://twitter.com/Rameshwar275 Simply Like and Share :) Oracle SQL PLSQL FaceBook group https://www.facebook.com/groups/146487615764170/ ORACLE SQL PLSQL VIDEO LINKS What is Parameterized Cursor in Oracle https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JMKwHlVi6-A What is autonomous transaction in Oracle. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gyvFajpfoWE What are Constraints available in Oracle. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WivhdLXQklQ What is Mutation Error and How to avoid mutation. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CbWNCyW18Bs 5 Effective way to delete Duplicate rows https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1wtTtnc87Oc What is Difference between Delete and Truncate https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7b6wQ3Qumgg What are types of View available in Oracle https://www.youtube.com/edit?o=U&video_id=PN-NsSA2R-E
Views: 4289 Ram Gupta
SQL: LEAD Function
 
06:30
In this tutorial, you'll learn how to make use of lead function in oracle sql PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 2293 radhikaravikumar
VIEWS IN ORACLE SQL WITH EXAMPLES
 
15:13
This video explains about views in Oracle SQL, views are integral part of any database, and its important to clearly understand views to work with them. Views are named and stored sql statements which would be executed once we call the view, views in whole do not store the data except if its a Materialized view. Views are widely used in day to day programming and can be useful in various cases, we discussed about all those cases in this video. If you would like to learn more on materialized view, visit the below videos https://youtu.be/7PklhTCNxxw https://youtu.be/EDf8Pk-x_nA If you want to know the difference between views and Materialized view, visit https://youtu.be/BnNKws_7_jc Visit our blog at www.oracleplsqlblog.com All out youtube videos: www.youtube.com/c/kishanmashru
Views: 1711 Kishan Mashru
ON DELETE CLAUSE OF FOREIGN KEY CONSTRAINT IN ORACLE SQL WITH EXAMPLE (CASCADE/SET NULL/NO ACTION)
 
15:31
This is a free video tutorial explaining about the nonmandatory on delete clause in the foreign key constraint in Oracle SQL database, the video explains about how the on delete set null and on delete cascade works, how it can be implemented with easy to understand examples. We have also shown practical demonstration on creating the foreign key constraint, and then deleting the data from the parent table and observing the changes that take place in the child table.
Views: 1589 Kishan Mashru
4. Outer block unaware of error if not re-raised.
 
03:03
If you do not re-raise an exception in your exception handler, the outer block doesn't know an error has occurred. Just sayin'. You have a subprogram that invokes another subprogram (or nested block). That "inner" subprogram fails with an exception. It contains an exception handler. It logs the error, but then neglects to re-raise that exception (or another). Control passes out to the invoking subprogram, and it continues executing statements, completely unaware that an error occurred in that inner block. Which means, by the way, that a call to SQLCODE will return 0. This may be just what you want, but make sure you do this deliberately. Related blog post: http://stevenfeuersteinonplsql.blogspot.com/2016/03/nine-good-to-knows-about-plsql-error.html ======================================== Practically Perfect PL/SQL with Steven Feuerstein Copyright © 2015 Oracle and/or its affiliates. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Other names may be registered trademarks of their respective owners. Oracle disclaims any warranties or representations as to the accuracy or completeness of this recording, demonstration, and/or written materials (the “Materials”). The Materials are provided “as is” without any warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including without limitation warranties or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement.
SQL tutorial 50: CASE - Searched Case Expression In Oracle (2/2)
 
05:52
Case expression let you perform IF-THEN-ELSE in oracle database. There are two type of case in oracle simple case expression and searched case expression. This SQL Tutorial 49 is about Simple Case Expression. ●Intro Of searched Case expression ● Syntax of SearchedCase Expression ● Query 1. Searched Case expression With logical operator using 2 columns ● Query 2. Searched Case Expression with Comparison operators and BETWEEN and IN operators. Celebrating 1000 subscribers. Thanks a lot guys for all your love and support. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ►►►LINKS◄◄◄ Blog: ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Copy Cloud referral link || Use this link to join copy cloud and get 20GB of free storage https://copy.com?r=kb4rc1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►Make sure you SUBSCRIBE and be the first one to see my videos! -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Amazon Wishlist: http://bit.ly/wishlist-amazon ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ►►►Find me on Social Media◄◄◄ Follow What I am up to as it happens on https://twitter.com/rebellionrider https://www.facebook.com/imthebhardwaj http://instagram.com/rebellionrider https://plus.google.com/+Rebellionrider http://in.linkedin.com/in/mannbhardwaj/ http://rebellionrider.tumblr.com/ http://www.pinterest.com/rebellionrider/ You can also Email me at [email protected] Please please LIKE and SHARE my videos it makes me happy. Thanks for liking, commenting, sharing and watching more of our videos This is Manish from RebellionRider.com ♥ I LOVE ALL MY VIEWERS AND SUBSCRIBERS
Views: 28378 Manish Sharma
SQL: TRIM function
 
06:35
In this tutorial, you'll learn how to use trim function PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 3149 radhikaravikumar
Decode function in oracle plsql.
 
16:28
This oracle tutorial explain how to use decode function in oracle pl sql. Decode function is a powerful function which let you create a set of branched if else like statement within a single sql statement. I have also provided an example which swap values of 2 columns with a single sql statement using decode.
Views: 1763 Subhroneel Ganguly
Debugging sql server stored procedures
 
15:11
debugging in ssms debugging t-sql code t sql debug stored procedure sql server management studio debug stored procedure how to debug t sql debug in sql server management studio In this video we will discuss how to debug stored procedures in SQL Server. Setting up the Debugger in SSMS : If you have connected to SQL Server using (local) or . (period), and when you start the debugger you will get the following error Unable to start T-SQL Debugging. Could not connect to computer. To fix this error, use the computer name to connect to the SQL Server instead of using (local) or . For the examples in this video we will be using the following stored procedure. Create procedure spPrintEvenNumbers @Target int as Begin Declare @StartNumber int Set @StartNumber = 1 while(@StartNumber [ @Target) Begin If(@StartNumber%2 = 0) Begin Print @StartNumber End Set @StartNumber = @StartNumber + 1 End Print 'Finished printing even numbers till ' + RTRIM(@Target) End Connect to SQL Server using your computer name, and then execute the above code to create the stored procedure. At this point, open a New Query window. Copy and paste the following T-SQL code to execute the stored procedure. DECLARE @TargetNumber INT SET @TargetNumber = 10 EXECUTE spPrintEvenNumbers @TargetNumber Print 'Done' Starting the Debugger in SSMS : There are 2 ways to start the debugger 1. In SSMS, click on the Debug Menu and select Start Debugging 2. Use the keyboard shortcut ALT + F5 At this point you should have the debugger running. The line that is about to be executed is marked with an yellow arrow Step Over, Step into and Step Out in SSMS : You can find the keyboard shortcuts in the Debug menu in SSMS. Let us understand what Step Over, Step into and Step Out does when debugging the following piece of code 1. There is no difference when you STEP INTO (F11) or STEP OVER (F10) the code on LINE 2 2. On LINE 3, we are calling a Stored Procedure. On this statement if we press F10 (STEP OVER), it won't give us the opportunity to debug the stored procedure code. To be able to debug the stored procedure code you will have to STEP INTO it by pressing F11. 3. If the debugger is in the stored procedure, and you don't want to debug line by line with in that stored procedure, you can STEP OUT of it by pressing SHIFT + F11. When you do this, the debugger completes the execution of the stored procedure and waits on the next line in the main query, i.e on LINE 4 in this example. To stop debugging : There are 2 ways to stop debugging 1. In SSMS, click on the Debug Menu and select Stop Debugging 2. Use the keyboard shortcut SHIFT + F5 Show Next Statement shows the next statement that the debugger is about to execute. Run to Cursor command executes all the statements in a batch up to the current cursor position Locals Window in SSMS : Displays the current values of variables and parameters If you cannot see the locals window or if you have closed it and if you want to open it, you can do so using the following menu option. Locals window is only available if you are in DEBUG mode. Watch Window in SSMS : Just like Locals window, Watch window is used to watch the values of variables. You can add and remove variables from the watch window. To add a variable to the Watch Window, right click on the variable and select "Add Watch" option from the context menu. Call Stack Window in SSMS : Allows you to navigate up and down the call stack to see what values your application is storing at different levels. It's an invaluable tool for determining why your code is doing what it's doing. Immediate Window in SSMS : Very helpful during debugging to evaluate expressions, and print variable values. To clear immediate window type ]cls and press enter. Breakpoints in SSMS : There are 2 ways to set a breakpoint in SSMS. 1. By clicking on the grey margin on the left hand side in SSMS (to remove click again) 2. By pressing F9 (to remove press F9 again) Enable, Disable or Delete all breakpoints : There are 2 ways to Enable, Disable or Delete all breakpoints 1. From the Debug menu 2. From the Breakpoints window. To view Breakpoints window select Debug =] Windows =] Breakpoints or use the keyboard shortcut ALT + CTRL + B Conditional Breakpoint : Conditional Breakpoints are hit only when the specified condition is met. These are extremely useful when you have some kind of a loop and you want to break, only when the loop variable has a specific value (For example loop varible = 100). How to set a conditional break point in SSMS : 1. Right click on the Breakpoint and select Condition from the context menu 2. In the Breakpoint window specify the condition Text version of the video http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2015/09/debugging-sql-server-stored-procedures.html Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2015/09/debugging-sql-server-stored-procedures_28.html
Views: 116822 kudvenkat
Create copy of table in Oracle Sql
 
06:24
If you have a table in your oracle database, and you wish to create a copy of that table, then this video tutorial would give you a perfect solution to your problem. This video tutorial concentrates on create table as a statement of oracle SQL, which is used to create a table of the underlining SQL statement. We have explained the complete flow with proper examples. Here you will learn 1. Create table with data 2. Create table without data To watch more such videos visit our youtube homepage www.youtube.com/c/kishanmashru visit out blog at www.oracleplsqlblog.com
Views: 1238 Kishan Mashru
Part 4   Delete duplicate rows in sql
 
03:26
Link for all dot net and sql server video tutorial playlists http://www.youtube.com/user/kudvenkat/playlists Link for slides, code samples and text version of the video http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2014/05/part-4-delete-duplicate-rows-in-sql.html In this video, we will discuss deleting all duplicate rows except one from a sql server table. SQL Script to create Employees table Create table Employees ( ID int, FirstName nvarchar(50), LastName nvarchar(50), Gender nvarchar(50), Salary int ) GO Insert into Employees values (1, 'Mark', 'Hastings', 'Male', 60000) Insert into Employees values (1, 'Mark', 'Hastings', 'Male', 60000) Insert into Employees values (1, 'Mark', 'Hastings', 'Male', 60000) Insert into Employees values (2, 'Mary', 'Lambeth', 'Female', 30000) Insert into Employees values (2, 'Mary', 'Lambeth', 'Female', 30000) Insert into Employees values (3, 'Ben', 'Hoskins', 'Male', 70000) Insert into Employees values (3, 'Ben', 'Hoskins', 'Male', 70000) Insert into Employees values (3, 'Ben', 'Hoskins', 'Male', 70000) The delete query should delete all duplicate rows except one. Here is the SQL query that does the job. PARTITION BY divides the query result set into partitions. WITH EmployeesCTE AS ( SELECT *, ROW_NUMBER()OVER(PARTITION BY ID ORDER BY ID) AS RowNumber FROM Employees ) DELETE FROM EmployeesCTE WHERE RowNumber ] 1
Views: 364780 kudvenkat
Learn Oracle | Using Rollup Function, Cube Function
 
05:50
Pebbles present, Learn Oracle 10g with Step By Step Video Tutorials. Learn Oracle 10g Tutorial series contains the following videos : Learn Oracle - History of Oracle Learn Oracle - What is Oracle - Why do we need Oracle Learn Oracle - What is a Database Learn Oracle - What is Grid Computing Learn Oracle - What is Normalization Learn Oracle - What is ORDBMS Learn Oracle - What is RDBMS Learn Oracle - Alias Names, Concatenation, Distinct Keyword Learn Oracle - Controlling and Managing User Access (Data Control Language) Learn Oracle - Introduction to SQL Learn Oracle - Oracle 10g New Data Types Learn Oracle - How to Alter a Table using SQL Learn Oracle - How to Create a Package in PL SQL Learn Oracle - How to Create a Report in SQL Plus Learn Oracle - How to Create a Table using SQL - Not Null, Unique Key, Primary Key Learn Oracle - How to Create a Table using SQL Learn Oracle - How to Create a Trigger in PL SQL Learn Oracle - How to Delete Data from a Table using SQL Learn Oracle - How to Drop and Truncate a Table using SQL Learn Oracle - How to Insert Data in a Table using SQL Learn Oracle - How to open ISQL Plus for the first time Learn Oracle - How to Open SQL Plus for the First Time Learn Oracle - How to Update a Table using SQL Learn Oracle - How to use Aggregate Functions in SQL Learn Oracle - How to use Functions in PL SQL Learn Oracle - How to use Group By, Having Clause in SQL Learn Oracle - How to Use Joins, Cross Join, Cartesian Product in SQL Learn Oracle - How to use Outer Joins (Left, Right, Full) in SQL Learn Oracle - How to use the Character Functions, Date Functions in SQL Learn Oracle - How to use the Merge Statement in SQL Learn Oracle - How to use the ORDER BY Clause with the Select Statement Learn Oracle - How to use the SELECT Statement Learn Oracle - How to use the Transactional Control Statements in SQL Learn Oracle - How to use PL SQL Learn Oracle - Data Types in PL SQL Learn Oracle - Exception Handling in PL SQL Learn Oracle - PL SQL Conditional Logics Learn Oracle - PL SQL Cursor Types - Explicit Cursor, Implicit Cursor Learn Oracle - PL SQL Loops Learn Oracle - Procedure Creation in PL SQL Learn Oracle - Select Statement with WHERE Cause Learn Oracle - SQL Operators and their Precedence Learn Oracle - Using Case Function, Decode Function in SQL Learn Oracle - Using Logical Operators in the WHERE Clause of the Select Statement Learn Oracle - Using Rollup Function, Cube Function Learn Oracle - Using Set Operators in SQL Learn Oracle - What are the Different SQL Data Types Learn Oracle - What are the different types of Databases Visit Pebbles Official Website - http://www.pebbles.in Subscribe to our Channel – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNNjWVsQqaMYccY044vtHJw?sub_confirmation=1 Engage with us on Facebook at https://www.facebook.com/PebblesChennai Please Like, Share, Comment & Subscribe
Views: 624 Pebbles Tutorials
Strings in PL SQL Tutorial
 
07:35
Subscribe for more PL SQL tutorials https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC7sbHUgN8FnJEZkEjvKTwJg String Function & Purpose 1 ASCII(x); Returns the ASCII value of the character x. 2 CHR(x); Returns the character with the ASCII value of x. 3 CONCAT(x, y); Concatenates the strings x and y and return the appended string. 4 INITCAP(x); Converts the initial letter of each word in x to uppercase and returns that string. 5 INSTR(x, find_string [, start] [, occurrence]); Searches for find_string in x and returns the position at which it occurs. 6 INSTRB(x); Returns the location of a string within another string, but returns the value in bytes. 7 LENGTH(x); Returns the number of characters in x. TUTORIALSPOINT Simply Easy Learning Page 59 8 LENGTHB(x); Returns the length of a character string in bytes for single byte character set. 9 LOWER(x); Converts the letters in x to lowercase and returns that string. 10 LPAD(x, width [, pad_string]) ; Pads x with spaces to left, to bring the total length of the string up to width characters. 11 LTRIM(x [, trim_string]); Trims characters from the left of x. 12 NANVL(x, value); Returns value if x matches the NaN special value (not a number), otherwise x is returned. 13 NLS_INITCAP(x); Same as the INITCAP function except that it can use a different sort method as specified by NLSSORT. 14 NLS_LOWER(x) ; Same as the LOWER function except that it can use a different sort method as specified by NLSSORT. 15 NLS_UPPER(x); Same as the UPPER function except that it can use a different sort method as specified by NLSSORT. 16 NLSSORT(x); Changes the method of sorting the characters. Must be specified before any NLS function; otherwise, the default sort will be used. 17 NVL(x, value); Returns value if x is null; otherwise, x is returned. 18 NVL2(x, value1, value2); Returns value1 if x is not null; if x is null, value2 is returned. 19 REPLACE(x, search_string, replace_string); Searches x for search_string and replaces it with replace_string. 20 RPAD(x, width [, pad_string]); Pads x to the right. 21 RTRIM(x [, trim_string]); Trims x from the right. 22 SOUNDEX(x) ; Returns a string containing the phonetic representation of x. 23 SUBSTR(x, start [, length]); Returns a substring of x that begins at the position specified by start. An optional length for the substring may be supplied. 24 SUBSTRB(x); Same as SUBSTR except the parameters are expressed in bytes instead of characters for the single-byte character systems. 25 TRIM([trim_char FROM) x); Trims characters from the left and right of x. 26 UPPER(x); Converts the letters in x to uppercase and returns that string.
Views: 434 Puzzle Guru
PL/SQL: Without using Length function
 
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In this tutorial, you'll learn how to get the length of a string PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 2234 radhikaravikumar
PL/SQL: Brief on V-arrays
 
03:35
In this tutorial, you'll learn the points to be noted on V-arrays PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 4103 radhikaravikumar