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Videos uploaded by user “Veritasium”
Backspin Basketball Flies Off Dam
 
03:01
How far would a basketball with backspin go? Rotor wing experimental aircraft: https://youtu.be/Ra8y6gGotwY E-ship 1: https://youtu.be/qJ7haGqXs_E Corner kick by Kyle: https://youtu.be/YIPO3W081Hw How Ridiculous World Record Basket: https://youtu.be/H9SF2YIKRY8
Views: 37567795 Veritasium
How Special Relativity Makes Magnets Work
 
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MinutePhysics on permanent magnets: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hFAOXdXZ5TM Subscribe to Veritasium: http://bit.ly/SuBVe Support Veritasium- get a t-shirt: http://dft.ba/-vetshirt Subscribe to MinutePhysics: http://bit.ly/1eVPynh Magnetism seems like a pretty magical phenomenon. Rocks that attract or repel each other at a distance - that's really cool - and electric current in a wire interacts in the same way. What's even more amazing is how it works. We normally think of special relativity as having little bearing on our lives because everything happens at such low speeds that relativistic effects are negligible. But when you consider the large number of charges in a wire and the strength of the electric interaction, you can see that electromagnets function thanks to the special relativistic effect of length contraction. In a frame of reference moving with the charges, there is an electric field that creates a force on the charges. But in the lab frame, there is no electric field so it must be a magnetic field creating the force. Hence we see that a magnetic field is what an electric field becomes when an electrically charged object starts moving. I was inspired to make this video by Prof. Eric Mazur http://mazur.harvard.edu/emdetails.php Huge thank you to Ralph at the School of Physics, University of Sydney for helping us out with all this magnetic gear. Thanks also to geology for loaning the rocks. This video was filmed in the studio at the University of New South Wales - thanks to all the staff there for their time and support. Music: Firefly in a Fairytale, Nathaniel Schroeder, and Love Lost (Instrumental) by Temper Trap licensed from CueSongs.com
Views: 2053707 Veritasium
Can You Go the Speed of Light?
 
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Einstein's classic thought experiment involves sitting on a train travelling at the speed of light. If you hold a mirror in front of your face, will you see your reflection in a mirror? How could light from your face reach the mirror if the mirror is travelling away from you? But it would be a pretty spooky train if you couldn't see your reflection so Einstein felt this solution wasn't realistic. On the other hand if you could see your reflection, it would mean light was travelling at the speed of light inside the train. But that meant the same light observed from outside the train would be going twice the speed of light. This again seems inconsistent. So Einstein resolved that you must see your reflection but that light must travel at the same speed inside and outside the train. The only way this is possible is if space and time are perceived differently by observers inside and outside the train.
Views: 1761999 Veritasium
Misconceptions About Temperature
 
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Made for ABC TV Catalyst http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/ as an extended version of my Comparing Temperatures video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hNGJ0WHXMyE
Views: 2119948 Veritasium
Gyroscopic Precession
 
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NOTE: This video will appear in a playlist on Smarter Every Day hence the references to Veritasium. Destin does lots of cool science stuff - check out his channel if you haven't already http://www.youtube.com/destinws2 We have been collaborating on rotational motion, which is timely for some of the videos I've been doing lately. In this video I talk about gyroscopic precession - the "wobbling" of a spinning top around its axis. This is caused by the torque due to the object's weight. The big idea is that the torque vector increases angular momentum in the direction of torque. So if there is no angular momentum initially, it will cause the system to swing in such a direction that it is rotating with new angular momentum in the direction of the torque. However, if there was angular momentum to begin with, the torque will change the direction of that angular momentum by causing precession.
Views: 3124323 Veritasium
What's In A Candle Flame?
 
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Microwave grape plasma: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RwTjsRt0Fzo Northern Lights: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=knwiWm4DpvQ Nanodiamonds in candle flames: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KzOkuGQC3Rw Relight Candle Trick: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1tXPVTIisl0 Is a flame really a plasma? Well it depends on your definition of plasma, but there are certainly ions in a flame, formed as molecules collide with each other at high speed, sometimes knocking electrons off of their atoms. Special thanks to the Palais de la Decouverte for helping me perform this experiment. Using tens of thousands of volts on two metal plates, we created a strong electric field around the plasma. This pulled positive ions in one direction and negative ions in the other direction elongating the flame horizontally and causing it to flicker like a "papillon" (butterfly). Then we showed that much longer sparks can be made through the flame than through air since the ions increase the conductivity.
Views: 3695425 Veritasium
Where Do Trees Get Their Mass From?
 
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Complete unedited interviews: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8dcw98B2Nzg Trees can weigh hundreds or even thousands of tons, but where do they get this mass from? A few common answers are: the soil, water, and sunlight. But the truth is the vast majority of a dry tree's mass comes from the air - it originated as carbon dioxide
Views: 1180423 Veritasium
Your Mass is NOT From the Higgs Boson
 
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The Higgs Boson is awesome but it's NOT responsible for most of your mass! Thanks to audible.com for supporting this episode: http://bit.ly/ZJ5Q6z The Higgs mechanism is meant to account for the mass of everything, right? Well no, only the fundamental particles, which means that electrons derive their mass entirely from the Higgs interaction but protons and neutrons, made of quarks, do not. In fact the quark masses are so small that they only make up about 1% of the mass of the proton (and a similar fraction of the neutron). The rest of the mass comes from the energy in the gluon field. Gluons are massless, but there is so much energy in the field that by E=mc^2 there is a significant amount of mass there. This is where most of your mass comes from and the mass of virtually everything around you. Thanks to Professor Derek Leinweber for his great images, animations and explanations. Check out his site to find out more: http://bit.ly/ZZTKFP
Views: 2111716 Veritasium
What is NOT Random?
 
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Is the future of the universe already determined? Vsauce tackles "What is Random?": https://youtu.be/9rIy0xY99a0 Special Thanks to: Prof Stephen Bartlett, Prof Phil Moriarty, Prof Andrea Morello, Prof Tim Bedding, Prof Michio Kaku, A/Prof Alex Argyros, Henry Reich, Vanessa Hill, Dianna Cowern, George Ruiz and Mystery Cat. Views expressed in this video are not necessarily those of the amazing experts listed above but their advice was invaluable in making this video. Quantum simulation by PhET: https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/quantum-tunneling Music by Jake Chudnow: https://soundcloud.com/jakechudnow Amarante Music: https://soundcloud.com/amarantemusic DNA animations by http://www.wehi.tv Space animations by NASA Topic inspired by The Information - a history, a theory, a flood by James Gleick Filmed on location at the University of Sydney, Washington DC and LA
Views: 3819010 Veritasium
Sparks from Falling Water: Kelvin's Thunderstorm
 
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The physics behind Kelvin's Thunderstorm explained. No, it is not a practical way of generating electricity, which is why we use turbines at hydro stations. This video goes into more detail about the phenomenon demonstrated in this Hunger Games collab video: http://youtu.be/Rwa26CXG1fc
Views: 1207151 Veritasium
World's First Electric Generator
 
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Huge thanks to the Royal Institution, Professor Frank James, and Katie Atmore for filming. For the Sixty Symbols version of this experiment click http://bit.ly/RGfLY5 Michael Faraday created the first electric generator in 1831 using a coil of wire and a permanent magnet. When the magnet was moved relative to the coil, current was induced in the coil. A similar experiment can be performed with a copper tube and a magnet. Although copper is not magnetic, it is a conductor. As the magnet falls through the pipe, the magnetic field changes over different sections of the pipe. This induces swirling currents (called eddy currents), which create a magetic field that opposes the motion of the magnet. This means work must be done to move the magnet through the pipe. This work generates the electrical energy, which is then dissipated as thermal energy in the pipe. The same basic principle is used to generate electricity throughout the world: moving a magnet inside copper coils. Experiments A Cappella http://bit.ly/TtdflV Where Did The Earth Come From http://bit.ly/VQBzQJ The Coastline Paradox http://bit.ly/TIapxM Microwave Grape Plasma http://bit.ly/QkCwUt Music by Kevin McLeod (http://www.incompetech.com) Sneaky Snitch and Danse Macabre
Views: 1788371 Veritasium
Empty Space is NOT Empty
 
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An atom is mostly empty space, but empty space is mostly not empty. The reason it looks empty is because electrons and photons don't interact with the stuff that is there, quark and gluon field fluctuations. It actually takes energy to clear out space and make a true 'empty' vacuum. This seems incredibly counter-intuitive but we can make an analogy to a permanent magnet. When at low energies, like at room temperature, there is a magnetic field around the magnet due to the alignment of all the magnetic moments of the atoms. But if you add some energy to it by heating it, the particles gain thermal energy, which above the Curie temperature makes their magnetic moments randomly oriented and hence destroying the magnetic field. So in this case energy is needed to clear out the field, just as in the quantum vacuum. Special thanks to Professor Derek Leinweber, find out more about his research here: http://bit.ly/ZZTKFP
Views: 1648746 Veritasium
Why Do You Make People Look Stupid?
 
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Raw interviews: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8dcw98B2Nzg The question has arisen often enough that I thought I'd answer it. If you hold views that are consistent with the majority of the population, does that make you stupid? I don't think so. Science has uncovered a lot of counterintuitive things about the universe, so it's unsurprising that non-scientists hold beliefs inconsistent with science. But when we teach, we must take into account what the learners know, including their incorrect knowledge. That is the reason a lot of Veritasium videos start with the misconceptions. Want to read my PhD? You can download the full text here: http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/pdfs/research/super/PhD(Muller).pdf
Views: 1566512 Veritasium
What Is The Magnus Force?
 
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Whenever an object spins through the air it experiences a 'Magnus Force' due to friction between the air and the object's surface. This force was originally identified while studying the trajectories of cannon balls (though earlier observations of this effect exist). The Magnus force is essential in most ball sports including golf, cricket, tennis, and baseball. At the end the ball demonstrations were conducted with a 100 mm diam polystyrene ball and the launcher was made by bending a long, thin, aluminum rod and bolting the ends to a block of wood as a handle. Music was provided by Kevin McLeod (incompetech.com) Scissors and a stock clip from FCP.
Views: 884424 Veritasium
Is This What Quantum Mechanics Looks Like?
 
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Silicone oil droplets provide a physical realization of pilot wave theories. Check out Smarter Every Day: http://bit.ly/VeSmarter Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Huge thanks to: Dr. Stephane Perrard, Dr Matthieu Labousse, Pr Emmanuel Fort, Pr Yves Couder and their group site http://dualwalkers.com/ Prof. John Bush: http://math.mit.edu/~bush/ Dr. Daniel Harris Prof. Stephen Bartlett Looking Glass Universe: http://bit.ly/LGUVe Workgroup Bohemian Mechanics: http://www.mathematik.uni-muenchen.de/~bohmmech/ Filmed by Raquel Nuno Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Thanks to Google Making and Science for helping me pursue my #sciencegoals. If you want to try this experiment, instructions are here: link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12650-016-0383-5 The standard theory of quantum mechanics leaves a bit to be desired. As Richard Feynman put it, "I think I can safely say that no one understands quantum mechanics." This is because observations of experiments have led us to a theory that contradicts common sense. The wave function contains all the information that is knowable about a particle, yet it can only be used to calculate probabilities of where a particle will likely turn up. It can't give us an actual account of where the particle went or where it will be at some later time. Some have suggested that this theory is incomplete. Maybe something is going on beneath the radar of standard quantum theory and somehow producing the appearance of randomness and uncertainty without actually being random or uncertain. Theories of this sort are called hidden variable theories because they propose entities that aren't observable. One such theory is pilot wave theory, first proposed by de Broglie, but later developed by Bohm. The idea here is that a particle oscillates, creating a wave. It then interacts with the wave and this complex interaction determines its motion. Experiments using silicone oil droplets on a vibrating bath provide a remarkable physical realization of pilot wave theories. They give us a physical picture of what the quantum world might look like if this is what's going on - and this theory is still deterministic. The particle is never in two places at once and there is no randomness. Edited by Robert Dahlem Sound design by A Shell in the Pit
Views: 2860941 Veritasium
Anti-Gravity Wheel Explained
 
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It's a little shaky but if you average out the oscillations I think the result is clear. Again, huge thank you's to A/Prof Emeritus Rod Cross, Helen Georgiou, Alex Yeung, and Chris Stewart, Tom Gordon, the University of Sydney Mechanical Engineering shop, Duncan and co. Ralph and the School of Physics.
Views: 2195441 Veritasium
Five Firsts for Mars InSight
 
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Mars InSight will be the first to detect seismic activity on Mars’ surface, first to measure rate of heat transmitted from interior, first to dig nearly 5m down, first to measure magnetic fields on Mars’ surface, and first to use a robotic arm to place instruments on the surface of Mars (assuming it lands of course…) If you want to watch the InSight landing “live” (with 4-minute speed of light time delay), go to: https://ve42.co/insight Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animations courtesy of NASA Script and Filming with Raquel Nuno Editing and graphics by Ignat Berbeci
Views: 594640 Veritasium
How Does a Transistor Work?
 
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How does a transistor work? Our lives depend on this device. Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Subscribe to Veritasium - it's FREE! http://bit.ly/YSWpWm When I mentioned to people that I was doing a video on transistors, they would say "as in a transistor radio?" Yes! That's exactly what I mean, but it goes so much deeper than that. After the transistor was invented in 1947 one of the first available consumer technologies it was applied to was radios, so they could be made portable and higher quality. Hence the line in 'Brown-eyed Girl' - "going down to the old mine with a transistor radio." But more important to our lives today, the transistor made possible the microcomputer revolution, and hence the Internet, and also TVs, mobile phones, fancy washing machines, dishwashers, calculators, satellites, projectors etc. etc. A transistor is based on semiconductor material, usually silicon, which is 'doped' with impurities to carefully change its electrical properties. These n and p-type semiconductors are then put together in different configurations to achieve a desired electrical result. And in the case of the transistor, this is to make a tiny electrical switch. These switches are then connected together to perform computations, store information, and basically make everything electrical work intelligently. Special thanks to PhD Comics for awesome animations: http://bit.ly/16ZXcVY And thanks to Henry Reich and Vanessa Hill for reviews of earlier drafts of this video. Music: Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Decisions
Views: 2547125 Veritasium
Shadow Illusion
 
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When sunlight shines through a small hole, it casts a circular image on the wall regardless of the shape of the hole. The size of the hole also doesn't affect the size of the image. This counterintuitive demonstration shows that the hole is acting like a pinhole camera, producing an image of the sun on the wall. Therefore the size and shape of the hole have no effect on the size and shape of the image.
Views: 986411 Veritasium
How Galaxies Came From Nothing
 
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All the large-scale structure in the universe may owe its existence to nothing. Sponsored by the Dyson 360 Eye Robot #ad: http://bit.ly/2cGqBRV Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Thanks to Patreon supporters: Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Let's see how clearly I can explain this. We think of empty space as, well... empty, the epitome of nothingness. But as our understanding of physics has evolved we have realized that it's not truly empty. Space is filled with fields. There is a field for every subatomic particle. One for electrons, up quarks, down quarks, neutrinos and so on. In empty space these fields are basically zero, flat, nil. But it's impossible to make them perfectly zero so there are always some quantum fluctuations in the fields, even in a perfect vacuum. These are sometimes called virtual particles but they should really just be thought of as little disturbances in the field. Vacuum fluctuation play a role mediating the interactions of subatomic particles but they don't really have an impact on the large-scale structure of the universe, EXCEPT during inflation, right after the big bang when the universe increased in size 10^26 times. Due to this rapid expansion, those tiny fluctuations were blown up to the scale of the observable universe. And we know this by looking at the cosmic microwave background radiation where we can see slightly hotter and cooler parts of the early universe that correspond to density fluctuations. And it is these density fluctuations that allowed matter to clump together into large structures like the gigantic gas clouds that would go on to contain stars and planets. In case the video isn't clear, this is what I've been trying to say. Animations by Gustavo Rosa This video was sponsored in part by Dyson #ad
Views: 839242 Veritasium
Making SOLID Nitrogen!
 
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What happens when you decrease the pressure around a liquid? It boils. Water boils at room temperature once the pressure is low enough. What is interesting is that this decreases the temperature of the liquid. The fastest molecules escape, leaving the slower ones behind. Using this trick with liquid nitrogen, it is possible to create solid nitrogen at a temperature of -210C. We then poured the solid and liquid nitrogen mixture onto a tray of water. The surface of the water became so cold that CO2 solidified out of the atmosphere on its surface. Then, since CO2 does not pass through the liquid phase at atmospheric pressure, it was propelled on the water surface by jets of gas as it sublimed. Huge thanks to the Palais de la Decouverte. Music by Kevin MacLeod of Incompetech.com (Mirage)
Views: 2793632 Veritasium
Quantum Entanglement & Spooky Action at a Distance
 
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Does quantum entanglement make faster-than-light communication possible? What is NOT random? http://bit.ly/NOTrandoVe First, I know this video is not easy to understand. Thank you for taking the time to attempt to understand it. I've been working on this for over six months over which time my understanding has improved. Quantum entanglement and spooky action at a distance are still debated by professors of quantum physics (I know because I discussed this topic with two of them). Does hidden information (called hidden variables by physicists) exist? If it does, the experiment violating Bell inequalities indicates that hidden variables must update faster than light - they would be considered 'non-local'. On the other hand if you don't consider the spins before you make the measurement then you could simply say hidden variables don't exist and whenever you measure spins in the same direction you always get opposite results, which makes sense since angular momentum must be conserved in the universe. Everyone agrees that quantum entanglement does not allow information to be transmitted faster that light. There is no action either detector operator could take to signal the other one - regardless of the choice of measurement direction, the measured spins are random with 50/50 probability of up/down. Special thanks to: Prof. Stephen Bartlett, University of Sydney: http://bit.ly/1xSosoJ Prof. John Preskill, Caltech: http://bit.ly/1y8mJut Looking Glass Universe: http://bit.ly/17zZH7l Physics Girl: http://bit.ly/PhysGirl MinutePhysics: http://bit.ly/MinPhys Community Channel: http://bit.ly/CommChannel Nigel, Helen, Luke, and Simon for comments on earlier drafts of this video. Filmed in part by Scott Lewis: http://google.com/+scottlewis Music by Amarante "One Last Time": http://bit.ly/VeAmarante
Views: 2439672 Veritasium
The Absurdity of Detecting Gravitational Waves
 
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A head-vaporizing laser with a perfect wavelength detecting sub-proton space-time ripples. Huge thanks to Prof Rana Adhikari and LIGO: http://ligo.org Here's how he felt when he learned about the first ever detection: https://youtu.be/ViMnGgn87dg Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon A lot of videos have covered the general overview of the discovery of gravitational waves, what they are, the history of the search, when they were found but I wanted to delve into the absurd science that made the detection possible. When scientists want one megawatt of laser power, it's not just for fun (though I'm sure it's that too), it's because the fluctuations in the number of photons is proportional to their square root, making more powerful beams less noisy (as a fraction of their total). The smoothest mirrors were created not for aesthetic joy but because when you're trying to measure wiggles that are a fraction the width of a proton, a rough mirror surface simply won't do. Filmed by Daniel Joseph Files Music by Kevin MacLeod, http://www.incompetech.com "Black Vortex" (appropriately named) Music licensed from Epidemic Sound http://epidemicsound.com "Observations 2" (also appropriately named)
Views: 3829354 Veritasium
Are Negative Ions Good For You?
 
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Do negative air ions improve mood, anxiety, depression, alertness? Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass, click here to find out more: http://bit.ly/2RZZTZk Special thanks to Prof. Jack Beauchamp and Dr. Nathan Dalleska from Caltech for all their help running these experiments and discussing the research. For more, check out the links below: http://www.cce.caltech.edu/people/jesse-l-jack-beauchamp http://beckmaninstitute.caltech.edu/eac.shtml If you want to dig into the research on negative ions yourself, I suggest starting with the review studies: Air ions and mood outcomes: a review and meta-analysis. Perez V, Alexander DD, Bailey WH. BMC Psychiatry. 2013 Jan 15;13:29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23320516 Air ions and respiratory function outcomes: a comprehensive review Dominik D Alexander, William H Bailey, Vanessa Perez, Meghan E Mitchell, and Steave Su J Negat Results Biomed. 2013; 12: 14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3848581/ Exposure of laboratory animals to small air ions: a systematic review of biological and behavioral studies. Bailey WH, Williams AL, Leonhard MJ. Biomed Eng Online. 2018 Jun 5; 17(1):72. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29866122 Thumbnail photography by Raquel Nuno VFX by Alan Chamberlain Sound recording by Whitney Clavin Motion Graphics by Charlie Kilman Music from Epidemic Sound: http://epidemicsound.com "Capture a Picture 1" and "Seaweed"
Views: 1144525 Veritasium
The Best Test of General Relativity (by 2 Misplaced Satellites)
 
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A launch mishap led to the best experimental confirmation of gravitational redshift. Get a free audiobook with a 30-day trial of Audible: http://audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500 Huge thanks to Dr. Pacome Delva: https://ve42.co/pacome Dr. Sven Herrmann: https://ve42.co/sven Gravitational Redshift Test Using Eccentric Galileo Satellites: https://ve42.co/GRtest Disclaimer: It is arguable what is THE best test of general relativity because there are different ways to test the theory. This is the best confirmation of gravitational redshift, which is one of the three original tests proposed by Einstein. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animations and editing by Alan Chamberlain Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Subtle Substitutes 2" "A sound Foundation 1" "Cell Research 1" "Particle Attraction 1"
Views: 714196 Veritasium
The Best and Worst Prediction in Science
 
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The best and worst predictions in science are both based on the same underlying physics Check out the Great Courses Plus: http://ow.ly/cePe303oKDM Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Special thanks to: Prof. Sean Carroll Prof. Brian Schmidt Prof. Stephen Bartlett Prof. Geraint Lewis More on this topic: http://wke.lt/w/s/XDkwi Patreon supporters: Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Jason Buster, Saeed Alghamdi, Nathan Hansen Virtual particles are a way of talking about fields and their interactions as though particles are doing all the work. This is why there is some controversy around using the term 'virtual particles'. Some people think the term is useful, especially since in calculating with Feynman diagrams you draw all the particle interactions that are possible (and then do the calculations to get the right answer). While others feel this terminology is misleading because virtual particles don't behave like real particles and can't be observed.
Views: 1708711 Veritasium
Levitating Barbecue! Electromagnetic Induction
 
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At the Palais de la Decouverte in Paris, they showed me this experiment where a 1kg aluminium plate is levitated above a large coil of wire that is being supplied with 800A of alternating current at 900Hz. This is by far the best demonstration of electromagnetic induction I have ever seen. Back in London, I visited the magnetic lab of Michael Faraday in the basement of the Royal Institution. It was here that he did his groundbreaking work on induction. People had previously observed that current in a wire causes a compass needle to deflect, but more exciting was the prospect of using a magnetic field to generate current. Faraday created his famous induction ring by winding two coils of insulated wire onto an iron ring. When he connected a battery to one coil, a small pulse of current was induced in the other. When the battery was disconnected, current was induced in the other direction. This led Faraday to the conclusion that current was induced in the second coil only when the magnetic field through it was changing. And if they hadn't been wrapped on the same ring, Faraday may have noticed that the two coils repel each other when the current is induced due to the interaction of their magnetic fields. This is the same thing that is happening with the aluminium plate, except we're using alternating current to create a continually changing magnetic field. This induces an alternating current in the plate, producing an opposing magnetic field which levitates the disk.
Views: 2036889 Veritasium
How To Make Graphene
 
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My entry to the techNyou Science Ambassadors competition, visit www.facebook.com/talkingtechnology and www.youtube.com/technyouvids to find out more about these guys.
Views: 1903536 Veritasium
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle Explained
 
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Heisenberg's uncertainty principle tells us that it is impossible to simultaneously measure the position and momentum of a particle with infinite precision. In our everyday lives we virtually never come up against this limit, hence why it seems peculiar. In this experiment a laser is shone through a narrow slit onto a screen. As the slit is made narrower, the spot on the screen also becomes narrower. But at a certain point, the spot starts becoming wider. This is because the photons of light have been so localised at the slit that their horizontal momentum must become less well defined in order to satisfy Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. I based this video on one by Prof. Walter Lewin of MIT: http://bit.ly/100Wk2K Henry (MinutePhysics) has previously made a video about Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle where he treats it as less spooky and more a consequence of waves: http://bit.ly/TV3xO5 Sixty Symbols has a great video on Planck's constant: http://bit.ly/11upebY Thanks to the University of Sydney for hosting this experiment, especially to Tom and Ralph for their assistance getting it working. Music: Kevin McLeod (Incompetech.com) Mirage and Danse Macabre
Views: 1592458 Veritasium
The kg is dead, long live the kg
 
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The kilogram, mole, kelvin, and ampere will be redefined by physical constants. For a limited time, get 3 months of Audible for just $6.95 a month: http://audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500 Will this be the last video I make about SI units? Quite possibly. There's something about being so precise and defining the systems within which science works. When we can more accurately and routinely measure a kilogram, a mole, a kelvin and an ampere, then we can make better observations, we can better detect anomalies and improve our theories. That is why this is so important to me. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, James M Nicholson, Terrance Shepherd, Stan Presolski Special thanks to NIST: http://nist.gov Additional graphics by Ignat Berbeci Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Experimental1"
Views: 1721757 Veritasium
Fire in ZERO-G!!
 
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In a zero-g plane I experimented with flames and slinkies with surprising results. Check out e-penser's video: http://ve42.co/EPzeroG Check out Physicsgirl's video: http://ve42.co/PGzeroG Thanks to Novespace: http://ve42.co/novespace Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Nick Luchsinger, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen The zero-g plane allows for a lot of experiments to be conducted without the expense of getting equipment into orbit. Apparently 80% of microgravity research can be performed in a zero-gravity plane, which is much cheaper than going to space. The flame from the lighter seemed much lazier in zero-g because without weight there is no buoyant force and therefore no convection. This makes the process of combustion more challenging because it's difficult for oxygen to reach the fuel. Music from the Epidemic Sound: http://ve42.co/epidemic "Serene Story 2" "In Orbit 2"
Views: 4869458 Veritasium
Misconceptions About Falling Objects
 
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Yes, I have made a similar vid before. This is the Australian TV version for the ABC show Catalyst http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/ Misconceptions About Temperature http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vqDbMEdLiCs The Mysterious Falling Slinky http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAA613hqqZ0 Why Are Astronauts Weightless? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iQOHRKKNNLQ And for those of you wanting a more General Relativity based explanation. Don't worry, it's coming.
Views: 1028941 Veritasium
Welding in Space
 
06:53
In space, metals can weld together without heat or melting. Check out Audible: http://bit.ly/AudibleVe Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Written by Joh Howes and Derek Muller Yes, it's pronounced Gemini (ee not eye) because that's the way everyone pronounced this mission. Thanks to Patreon supporters: Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi References: Gemini IV transcripts: http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/history/mission_trans/gemini4.htm Gemini IV recordings: https://archive.org/details/Gemini4 (relevant clip is 1297 at about 2:00) ESA cold welding recommendations: esmat.esa.int/Publications/Published_papers/STM-279.pdf Cold welding gold nanowire: http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/v5/n3/full/nnano.2010.4.html Music by Kevin MacLeod "Intrepid" http://www.incompetech.com
Views: 1544568 Veritasium
Can You Perceive Acceleration?
 
03:34
How do our eyes scan across a landscape? Contrary to popular belief, they don't scan smoothly across a scene, they observe a series of images. The eye is capable of panning smoothly however. If something moves in your field of view, your eyes track it smoothly. This has an important effect on our perception of motion. It makes it more difficult to see when objects are accelerating since the eye tracks all motion quite smoothly.
Views: 489834 Veritasium
Your Body's Molecular Machines
 
06:21
These are the molecular machines inside your body that make cell division possible. Animation by Drew Berry at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research. http://wehi.tv Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Joshua Abenir, Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Every day in an adult human roughly 50-70 billion of your cells die. They may be damaged, stressed, or just plain old - this is normal, in fact it’s called programmed cell death. To make up for that loss, right now, inside your body, billions of cells are dividing, creating new cells. And cell division, also called mitosis, requires an army of tiny molecular machines.DNA is a good place to start - the double helix molecule that we always talk about. This is a scientifically accurate depiction of DNA. If you unwind the two strands you can see that each has a sugar phosphate backbone connected to the sequence of nucleic acid base pairs, known by the letters A,T,G, and C. Now the strands run in opposite directions, which is important when you go to copy DNA. Copying DNA is one of the first steps in cell division. Here the two strands of DNA are being unwound and separated by the tiny blue molecular machine called helicase. It literally spins as fast as a jet engine! The strand of DNA on the right has its complimentary strand assembled continuously but the other strand is more complicated because it runs in the opposite direction. So it must be looped out with its compliment strand assembled in reverse, section by section. At the end of this process you have two identical DNA molecules, each one a few centimeters long but just a couple nanometers wide. To prevent the DNA from becoming a tangled mess, it is wrapped around proteins called a histones, forming a nucleosome. These nucleosomes are bundled together into a fiber known as chromatin, which is further looped and coiled to form a chromosome, one of the largest molecular structures in your body. You can actually see chromosomes under a microscope in dividing cells - only then do they take on their characteristic shape. The process of dividing the cell takes around an hour in mammals. This footage is from a time lapse. You can see how the chromosomes line up on the equator of the cell. When everything is right they are pulled apart into the two new daughter cells, each one containing an identical copy of DNA. As simple as it looks, this process is incredibly complicated and requires even more fascinating molecular machines to accomplish it. Let’s look at a single chromosome. One chromosome consists of two sausage-shaped chromatids - containing the identical copies of DNA made earlier. Each chromatid is attached to microtubule fibers, which guide and help align them in the correct position. The microtubules are connected to the chromatid at the kinetochore, here colored red. The kinetochore consists of hundreds of proteins working together to achieve multiple objectives - it’s one of the most sophisticated molecular mechanisms inside your body. The kinetochore is central to the successful separation of the chromatids. It creates a dynamic connection between the chromosome and the microtubules. For a reason no one’s yet been able to figure out, the microtubules are constantly being built at one end and deconstructed at the other. While the chromosome is still getting ready, the kinetochore sends out a chemical stop signal to the rest of the cell, shown here by the red molecules, basically saying this chromosome is not yet ready to divide The kinetochore also mechanically senses tension. When the tension is just right and the position and attachment are correct all the proteins get ready, shown here by turning green. At this point the stop signal broadcasting system is not switched off. Instead it is literally carried away from the kinetochore down the microtubules by a dynein motor. This is really what it looks like. It has long ‘legs’ so it can avoid obstacles and step over the kinesins, molecular motors walking the other direction. Studio filming by Raquel Nuno
Views: 1104319 Veritasium
The Bayesian Trap
 
10:37
Bayes' theorem explained with examples and implications for life. Check out Audible: http://ve42.co/audible Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon I didn't say it explicitly in the video, but in my view the Bayesian trap is interpreting events that happen repeatedly as events that happen inevitably. They may be inevitable OR they may simply be the outcome of a series of steps, which likely depend on our behaviour. Yet our expectation of a certain outcome often leads us to behave just as we always have which only ensures that outcome. To escape the Bayesian trap, we must be willing to experiment. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Jeff Straathof, Donal Botkin, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Saeed Alghamdi Useful references: The Signal and the Noise, Nate Silver The Theory That Would Not Die: How Bayes’ Rule Cracked the Enigma Code, Hunted Down Russian Submarines, and Emerged Triumphant from Two Centuries of Controversy, by Sharon Bertsch McGrayne Bayes' theorem or rule (there are many different versions of the same concept) has fascinated me for a long time due to its uses both in mathematics and statistics, and to solve real world problems. Bayesian inference has been used to crack the Enigma Code and to filter spam email. Bayes has also been used to locate the wreckage from plane crashes deep beneath the sea. Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Flourishing Views 3"
Views: 1824572 Veritasium
How to Understand the Image of a Black Hole
 
09:19
We have just seen the first image of a black hole, the supermassive black hole in the galaxy M87 with a mass 6.5 billion times that of our sun. But what is that image really showing us? This is an awesome paper on the topic by J.P. Luminet: Image of a spherical black hole with thin accretion disk Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 75, no. 1-2, May 1979, p. 228-235 https://ve42.co/luminet Using my every day intuition I wondered: will we see the "shadow" of the black hole even if we're looking edge on at the accretion disk? The answer is yes because the black hole warps space-time, so even if we wouldn't normally be able to see the back of the accretion disk, we can in this case because its light is bent up and over the black hole. Similarly we can see light from the bottom of the back of the accretion disk because it's bent under the bottom of the black hole. Plus there are additional images from light that does a half turn around the black hole leading to the inner rings. What about the black hole "shadow" itself? Well initially I thought it can't be an image of the event horizon because it's so much bigger (2.6 times bigger). But if you trace back the rays, you find that for every point in the shadow, there is a corresponding ray that traces back to the event horizon. So in fact from our one observing location, we see all sides of the event horizon simultaneously! In fact infinitely many of these images, accounting for the virtually infinite number of times a photon can orbit the black hole before falling in. The edge of the shadow is due to the photon sphere - the radius at which light goes around in closed orbits. If a light ray coming in at an oblique angle just skims the photon sphere and then travels on to our telescopes, that is the closest 'impact parameter' possible, and it occurs at sqrt(27)/2*r_s Huge thanks to: Prof. Geraint Lewis University of Sydney https://ve42.co/gfl Like him, I'm hoping (predicting?) we'll see some moving images of black holes tomorrow Prof. Rana Adhikari Caltech https://ve42.co/Rana Riccardo Antonelli - for excellent images of black holes, simulations and ray-tracing code, check out: https://ve42.co/rantonels The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration Check out their resources and get your local link for the livestream here: https://ve42.co/EHT Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme Filming by Raquel Nuno Animation by Maria Raykova
Views: 5342086 Veritasium
Bullet Block Experiment
 
01:52
Higher: http://bit.ly/blockhigher Same height: http://bit.ly/SameHeight Lower: http://bit.ly/BlockLower Special Thanks to: Henry (MinutePhysics): http://www.youtube.com/minutephysics Destin (Smarter Every Day): http://www.youtube.com/smartereveryday Greg and Mitch (ASAP Science): http://youtube.com/asapscience Elise Andrew (I F***ing Love Science): http://youtube.com/iflscience Thanks to everyone at RIT and Dickinson College who helped with the making of this video: Rochester Institute of Technology Robert Teese, Katelyn Wilkerson, Andrew Gillie, Andrew Stidwill Dickinson College This experiment was the brainchild of David Jackson based on a demo at Princeton. Priscilla Laws, Catrina Hamilton-Drager, Maxine Willis High-speed camera support: Charles Zwemer and Bria Antoine
Views: 1215551 Veritasium
Supercooled Water - Explained!
 
03:36
Many videos on YouTube show water freezing almost instantaneously. This video shows you how to replicate the experiment and it explains how the phenomenon works. Molecular illustrations are courtesy of: PhET Interactive Simulations University of Colorado http://phet.colorado.edu.
Views: 2306371 Veritasium
Slinky Drop Answer
 
03:31
Want more awesome HD slow-mo? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uiyMuHuCFo4 Slinky not long enough? Click here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JsytnJ_pSf8 How does a slinky fall when extended by its own weight and then released? We discover the surprising answer using a slow motion camera that records 300 frames per second. Answer link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oKb2tCtpvNU For a great explanation, check out Rhett Allain's analysis here: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2011/09/modeling-a-falling-slinky/
Views: 2238843 Veritasium
The Brightest Part of a Shadow is in the Middle
 
07:20
Why is there a bright spot behind spherical objects? Be the first to find out about new projects: http://www.veritasium.com Filmed by Nathan Watkins and Raquel Nuno, animation by Meg Rosenburg. Music by Kevin MacLeod, http://www.incompetech.com 'Scissors' 'Mirage' ' Marty Gots a Plan'. Special thanks to Laura Vican for helping with the experiment. References: http://www.princeton.edu/~rvdb/images/Questar/PoissonSpot.html Why Toast Lands Jelly-side Down: Zen and the Art of Physics Demonstrations By Robert Ehrlich
Views: 1948150 Veritasium
The Most Radioactive Places on Earth
 
11:18
Who on Earth is exposed to the most ionizing radiation? Check out Audible: http://bit.ly/AudibleVe I'm filming a documentary for TV about how Uranium and radioactivity have shaped the modern world. It will be broadcast in mid-2015, details to come. The filming took me to the most radioactive places on Earth (and some places, which surprisingly aren't as radioactive as you'd think). Chernobyl and Fukushima were incredible to see as they present post-apocalyptic landscapes. I also visited nuclear power plants, research reactors, Marie Curie's institute, Einstein's apartment, nuclear medicine areas of hospitals, uranium mines, nuclear bomb sites, and interviewed numerous experts. Notes about measuring radiation: Sieverts are a measure of 'effective dose' - that means they measure the biological impact of the energy transferred to tissues from radiation. Obviously I owe a debt to the fantastic chart made by xkcd, which inspired my visual approach to this video. https://xkcd.com/radiation/ DOSES MAY VARY The level of radiation varies widely around the world depending mainly on altitude and geology (excluding nuclear accidents). Estimates of particular doses also vary. All numbers reported in this video should be taken as order of magnitude only. The most contentious claim may be that smokers receive the highest dose of ionizing radiation. This is not a whole body dose, but a dose to the lungs as specified in the video. References are here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health_effects_of_tobacco http://www.rmeswi.com/36.html Special thanks to: Physics Girl: https://www.youtube.com/physicswoman MinutePhysics: https://www.youtube.com/minutephysics Natalie Tran: https://www.youtube.com/communitychannel Bionerd23: https://www.youtube.com/bionerd23 Nigel and Helen for feedback on earlier drafts of this video. Music is "Stale Mate"
Views: 10575748 Veritasium
Regression to the Mean
 
07:38
Is punishment or reward more effective as feedback? Do new medical treatments really work? What about streaks in sport? Without considering regression to the mean, we are prone to making significant errors. Check out Audible.com: http://bit.ly/ZJ5Q6z Filmed at Perimeter Institute: http://pitp.ca Is punishment or reward more effective for helping people learn. A lot of people would say different incentives motivate different people, or in different circumstances, but in psychology there is a sizable body of evidence that in order to learn skills, positive feedback is more effective. This fining has been verified not just with humans, but also with other species. It was strange then that after Daniel Kahneman discussed this research with Israeli fighter pilot instructors that he was met with resistance. They found the opposite was true: when they reprimanded a cadet for performing poorly, he invariably improved, but if they praised a cadet for an excellent performance, the next attempt was not as good. In order to solve this apparent contradiction we first need to understand regression to the mean. Teacher study: http://bit.ly/1h8puVT Rugby player study: http://bit.ly/1aNSrBI
Views: 1663413 Veritasium
Does Pressure Melt Ice?
 
01:38
When pressure is applied to ice, its melting point is reduced so it turns to water. When the pressure is removed, however, it turns back into ice. This process is called 'regelation.' Big thanks to Art of Ice Sculptures www.icesculpture.com.au who donated the beautiful block of ice.
Views: 1506012 Veritasium
Indestructible Coating?!
 
07:09
Used in everything from bullet-proof vests to the walls of the Pentagon, polyurea's strength comes from its long-chain molecules. Check out How Ridiculous: http://bit.ly/VeHowRidiculous Snatoms magnetic molecules: http://bit.ly/VeSnatoms Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Special thanks to South Bay Line-X: http://southbaylinex.com/ Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Filmed by Prashanth Venkataramanujam SFX by A Shell in the Pit
Views: 2414536 Veritasium
Spinning Tube Trick Explained
 
03:40
When a tube spins with an X and an O labelled at either end, why do we see only one letter during the rotation?
Views: 1562857 Veritasium
How Does A Wing Actually Work?
 
02:51
Lift is an important concept, not only in flying but also in sailing. This week I'm talking to Olympic Sailor, Hunter Lowden. But before I get to the physics of sailing I thought I would explain lift since it's generally poorly understood. minutephysics http://bit.ly/Muh6CC 1veritasium http://bit.ly/MrupzL efit30 http://bit.ly/O4CMme appchat http://bit.ly/NxAMlX erikaanear http://bit.ly/MdyUzQ whoisjimmy http://bit.ly/LtFzpW numberphile http://bit.ly/numberphile Music by Nathaniel Schroeder youtube: http://bit.ly/pakJLE myspace: http://mysp.ac/qtmZQj
Views: 1089316 Veritasium
Why Women Are Stripey
 
05:17
Epigenetics means women have different active x-chromosomes in different cells. Animation courtesy of http://wehi.tv Music by Amarante: http://bit.ly/VeAmarante Animation: Etsuko Uno Art and Technical Direction: Drew Berry Sound Design: Francois Tetaz & Emma Bortignon Scientific Consultation: Marnie Blewitt Courtesy of Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research: http://wehi.tv When a female embryo is four days old it consists of just 100 cells. At this point the x-chromosome from Mom and the one from Dad are both active. But in order for proper development to occur, one of the x chromosomes must be switched off. Through a tiny molecular battle within each cell, one of the x-chromosomes wins and remains active while the loser is deactivated. This is done by wrapping the DNA tighter around proteins, modifying histone tails, and DNA methylation - molecular markers to indicate this DNA should not be read. What's surprising is that it's pretty random which x chromosome wins - sometimes it's Mom's and sometimes it's Dad's. So when a female is just 100 cells big, her cells have a mix of active x-chromosomes, some from Mom and some from Dad.
Views: 4724708 Veritasium
How To Make Colour With Holes
 
05:38
Scientists are being inspired by nature to design the next generation of security devices. Arrays of nanoscale holes create beautiful reflected colours that are almost impossible to forge. This video was supported by TechNyou - check out their series on logical fallacies: http://bit.ly/WBsD31 Soon these nanoscale security devices could replace holograms. They are many times more reflective than holograms, and although the structures are smaller scale, they are lower aspect ratio and therefore easy to manufacture in bulk. The electron wiggle simulation is from PhET, the best physics simulations ever: http://phet.colorado.edu Special thanks to Thomas from Copenhagen who showed me around the city including the science museum where he assisted with the soap bubble demonstration. Clint Landrock is the Chief Technology Officer for Nanotech Securities: http://www.nanosecurity.ca Music is "Firefly in a Fairytale" by Gareth Coker
Views: 1249577 Veritasium
Slinky Drop Extended
 
01:58
The answer to the question - what happens to a tennis ball tied to the bottom of a slinky after the top of the slinky is let go? For a great explanation, check out Rhett Allain's analysis here: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2011/09/modeling-a-falling-slinky/
Views: 909189 Veritasium

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