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Videos uploaded by user “Veritasium”
Surprising Applications of the Magnus Effect
 
03:01
How far would a basketball with backspin go? Rotor wing experimental aircraft: https://youtu.be/Ra8y6gGotwY E-ship 1: https://youtu.be/qJ7haGqXs_E Corner kick by Kyle: https://youtu.be/YIPO3W081Hw How Ridiculous World Record Basket: https://youtu.be/H9SF2YIKRY8
Views: 37209981 Veritasium
How Does a Quantum Computer Work?
 
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For more on spin, check out: http://youtu.be/v1_-LsQLwkA This video was supported by TechNYou: http://bit.ly/19bBX5G A quantum computer works in a totally different way from a classical computer. Quantum bits or 'qubits' can exist in a superposition state of both zero and one simultaneously. This means that a set of two qubits can be in a superposition of four states, which therefore require four numbers to uniquely identify the state. So the amount of information stored in N qubits is two to the power of N classical bits. Thank you to Andrea Morello and UNSW. For more info, check out: http://bit.ly/17wZ7lt
Views: 2950687 Veritasium
How Special Relativity Makes Magnets Work
 
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MinutePhysics on permanent magnets: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hFAOXdXZ5TM Subscribe to Veritasium: http://bit.ly/SuBVe Support Veritasium- get a t-shirt: http://dft.ba/-vetshirt Subscribe to MinutePhysics: http://bit.ly/1eVPynh Magnetism seems like a pretty magical phenomenon. Rocks that attract or repel each other at a distance - that's really cool - and electric current in a wire interacts in the same way. What's even more amazing is how it works. We normally think of special relativity as having little bearing on our lives because everything happens at such low speeds that relativistic effects are negligible. But when you consider the large number of charges in a wire and the strength of the electric interaction, you can see that electromagnets function thanks to the special relativistic effect of length contraction. In a frame of reference moving with the charges, there is an electric field that creates a force on the charges. But in the lab frame, there is no electric field so it must be a magnetic field creating the force. Hence we see that a magnetic field is what an electric field becomes when an electrically charged object starts moving. I was inspired to make this video by Prof. Eric Mazur http://mazur.harvard.edu/emdetails.php Huge thank you to Ralph at the School of Physics, University of Sydney for helping us out with all this magnetic gear. Thanks also to geology for loaning the rocks. This video was filmed in the studio at the University of New South Wales - thanks to all the staff there for their time and support. Music: Firefly in a Fairytale, Nathaniel Schroeder, and Love Lost (Instrumental) by Temper Trap licensed from CueSongs.com
Views: 1941097 Veritasium
How Does a Transistor Work?
 
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How does a transistor work? Our lives depend on this device. Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Subscribe to Veritasium - it's FREE! http://bit.ly/YSWpWm When I mentioned to people that I was doing a video on transistors, they would say "as in a transistor radio?" Yes! That's exactly what I mean, but it goes so much deeper than that. After the transistor was invented in 1947 one of the first available consumer technologies it was applied to was radios, so they could be made portable and higher quality. Hence the line in 'Brown-eyed Girl' - "going down to the old mine with a transistor radio." But more important to our lives today, the transistor made possible the microcomputer revolution, and hence the Internet, and also TVs, mobile phones, fancy washing machines, dishwashers, calculators, satellites, projectors etc. etc. A transistor is based on semiconductor material, usually silicon, which is 'doped' with impurities to carefully change its electrical properties. These n and p-type semiconductors are then put together in different configurations to achieve a desired electrical result. And in the case of the transistor, this is to make a tiny electrical switch. These switches are then connected together to perform computations, store information, and basically make everything electrical work intelligently. Special thanks to PhD Comics for awesome animations: http://bit.ly/16ZXcVY And thanks to Henry Reich and Vanessa Hill for reviews of earlier drafts of this video. Music: Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Decisions
Views: 2461857 Veritasium
Can You Go the Speed of Light?
 
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Einstein's classic thought experiment involves sitting on a train travelling at the speed of light. If you hold a mirror in front of your face, will you see your reflection in a mirror? How could light from your face reach the mirror if the mirror is travelling away from you? But it would be a pretty spooky train if you couldn't see your reflection so Einstein felt this solution wasn't realistic. On the other hand if you could see your reflection, it would mean light was travelling at the speed of light inside the train. But that meant the same light observed from outside the train would be going twice the speed of light. This again seems inconsistent. So Einstein resolved that you must see your reflection but that light must travel at the same speed inside and outside the train. The only way this is possible is if space and time are perceived differently by observers inside and outside the train.
Views: 1727640 Veritasium
Misconceptions About Temperature
 
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Made for ABC TV Catalyst http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/ as an extended version of my Comparing Temperatures video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hNGJ0WHXMyE
Views: 2064782 Veritasium
Anti-Gravity Wheel Explained
 
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It's a little shaky but if you average out the oscillations I think the result is clear. Again, huge thank you's to A/Prof Emeritus Rod Cross, Helen Georgiou, Alex Yeung, and Chris Stewart, Tom Gordon, the University of Sydney Mechanical Engineering shop, Duncan and co. Ralph and the School of Physics.
Views: 2061684 Veritasium
Quantum Entanglement & Spooky Action at a Distance
 
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Does quantum entanglement make faster-than-light communication possible? What is NOT random? http://bit.ly/NOTrandoVe First, I know this video is not easy to understand. Thank you for taking the time to attempt to understand it. I've been working on this for over six months over which time my understanding has improved. Quantum entanglement and spooky action at a distance are still debated by professors of quantum physics (I know because I discussed this topic with two of them). Does hidden information (called hidden variables by physicists) exist? If it does, the experiment violating Bell inequalities indicates that hidden variables must update faster than light - they would be considered 'non-local'. On the other hand if you don't consider the spins before you make the measurement then you could simply say hidden variables don't exist and whenever you measure spins in the same direction you always get opposite results, which makes sense since angular momentum must be conserved in the universe. Everyone agrees that quantum entanglement does not allow information to be transmitted faster that light. There is no action either detector operator could take to signal the other one - regardless of the choice of measurement direction, the measured spins are random with 50/50 probability of up/down. Special thanks to: Prof. Stephen Bartlett, University of Sydney: http://bit.ly/1xSosoJ Prof. John Preskill, Caltech: http://bit.ly/1y8mJut Looking Glass Universe: http://bit.ly/17zZH7l Physics Girl: http://bit.ly/PhysGirl MinutePhysics: http://bit.ly/MinPhys Community Channel: http://bit.ly/CommChannel Nigel, Helen, Luke, and Simon for comments on earlier drafts of this video. Filmed in part by Scott Lewis: http://google.com/+scottlewis Music by Amarante "One Last Time": http://bit.ly/VeAmarante
Views: 2258214 Veritasium
This Particle Breaks Time Symmetry
 
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Increasing entropy is NOT the only process that's asymmetric in time. Check out the book: http://WeHaveNoIdea.com This video was co-written by Daniel Whiteson and Jorge Cham You can also check out PhD Comics: http://phdcomics.com Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Joshua Abenir Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Original paper on parity violation by the weak force by Lee and Yang: http://www.physics.utah.edu/~belz/phys5110/PhysRev.104.254.pdf More on B-meson oscillations and time reversal violation: Physics World Article: http://ve42.co/TimeReversal Original paper: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1410.1742.pdf https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B_meson Physics consultant: Prof. Stephen Bartlett Studio filming by Raquel Nuno
Views: 2106095 Veritasium
How To Make Graphene
 
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My entry to the techNyou Science Ambassadors competition, visit www.facebook.com/talkingtechnology and www.youtube.com/technyouvids to find out more about these guys.
Views: 1862592 Veritasium
Gyroscopic Precession
 
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NOTE: This video will appear in a playlist on Smarter Every Day hence the references to Veritasium. Destin does lots of cool science stuff - check out his channel if you haven't already http://www.youtube.com/destinws2 We have been collaborating on rotational motion, which is timely for some of the videos I've been doing lately. In this video I talk about gyroscopic precession - the "wobbling" of a spinning top around its axis. This is caused by the torque due to the object's weight. The big idea is that the torque vector increases angular momentum in the direction of torque. So if there is no angular momentum initially, it will cause the system to swing in such a direction that it is rotating with new angular momentum in the direction of the torque. However, if there was angular momentum to begin with, the torque will change the direction of that angular momentum by causing precession.
Views: 3006240 Veritasium
Science YouTubers Unite! ft. Vsauce, ViHart, John Green, MinutePhysics, CGPGrey, SixtySymbols, SED
 
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BrainSTEM is a conference of science YouTubers, instigated by Henry of MinutePhysics (Thank You Henry!!!) bringing together the most awesome STEM personalities from around the world. I had an awesome three days hanging out with all the cool people in this video and hopefully this is only the start of many fruitful collaborations to come. Thanks everyone!!! Now this happens to be video 100 for me. It's not really about science, but I think it's pretty awesome because it features all of my YouTube heroes.
Views: 767080 Veritasium
The Absurdity of Detecting Gravitational Waves
 
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A head-vaporizing laser with a perfect wavelength detecting sub-proton space-time ripples. Huge thanks to Prof Rana Adhikari and LIGO: http://ligo.org Here's how he felt when he learned about the first ever detection: https://youtu.be/ViMnGgn87dg Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon A lot of videos have covered the general overview of the discovery of gravitational waves, what they are, the history of the search, when they were found but I wanted to delve into the absurd science that made the detection possible. When scientists want one megawatt of laser power, it's not just for fun (though I'm sure it's that too), it's because the fluctuations in the number of photons is proportional to their square root, making more powerful beams less noisy (as a fraction of their total). The smoothest mirrors were created not for aesthetic joy but because when you're trying to measure wiggles that are a fraction the width of a proton, a rough mirror surface simply won't do. Filmed by Daniel Joseph Files Music by Kevin MacLeod, http://www.incompetech.com "Black Vortex" (appropriately named) Music licensed from Epidemic Sound http://epidemicsound.com "Observations 2" (also appropriately named)
Views: 3202552 Veritasium
Levitating Barbecue! Electromagnetic Induction
 
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At the Palais de la Decouverte in Paris, they showed me this experiment where a 1kg aluminium plate is levitated above a large coil of wire that is being supplied with 800A of alternating current at 900Hz. This is by far the best demonstration of electromagnetic induction I have ever seen. Back in London, I visited the magnetic lab of Michael Faraday in the basement of the Royal Institution. It was here that he did his groundbreaking work on induction. People had previously observed that current in a wire causes a compass needle to deflect, but more exciting was the prospect of using a magnetic field to generate current. Faraday created his famous induction ring by winding two coils of insulated wire onto an iron ring. When he connected a battery to one coil, a small pulse of current was induced in the other. When the battery was disconnected, current was induced in the other direction. This led Faraday to the conclusion that current was induced in the second coil only when the magnetic field through it was changing. And if they hadn't been wrapped on the same ring, Faraday may have noticed that the two coils repel each other when the current is induced due to the interaction of their magnetic fields. This is the same thing that is happening with the aluminium plate, except we're using alternating current to create a continually changing magnetic field. This induces an alternating current in the plate, producing an opposing magnetic field which levitates the disk.
Views: 2015118 Veritasium
What's In A Candle Flame?
 
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Microwave grape plasma: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RwTjsRt0Fzo Northern Lights: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=knwiWm4DpvQ Nanodiamonds in candle flames: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KzOkuGQC3Rw Relight Candle Trick: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1tXPVTIisl0 Is a flame really a plasma? Well it depends on your definition of plasma, but there are certainly ions in a flame, formed as molecules collide with each other at high speed, sometimes knocking electrons off of their atoms. Special thanks to the Palais de la Decouverte for helping me perform this experiment. Using tens of thousands of volts on two metal plates, we created a strong electric field around the plasma. This pulled positive ions in one direction and negative ions in the other direction elongating the flame horizontally and causing it to flicker like a "papillon" (butterfly). Then we showed that much longer sparks can be made through the flame than through air since the ions increase the conductivity.
Views: 3664519 Veritasium
Where Do Trees Get Their Mass From?
 
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Complete unedited interviews: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8dcw98B2Nzg Trees can weigh hundreds or even thousands of tons, but where do they get this mass from? A few common answers are: the soil, water, and sunlight. But the truth is the vast majority of a dry tree's mass comes from the air - it originated as carbon dioxide
Views: 1145686 Veritasium
Should This Lake Exist?
 
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The Salton Sea is the largest body of water in California, home to the second most diverse group of birds in America and it exists by accident. Another great video on the Salton Sea: https://youtu.be/otIU6Py4K_A I used archive from this video. Music by Kevin MacLeod, www.incompetech.com ‘Mirage’, ‘Hyperfun’, ‘Marty Gots a Plan’, ‘Past the Edge’
Views: 3289545 Veritasium
What is NOT Random?
 
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Is the future of the universe already determined? Vsauce tackles "What is Random?": https://youtu.be/9rIy0xY99a0 Special Thanks to: Prof Stephen Bartlett, Prof Phil Moriarty, Prof Andrea Morello, Prof Tim Bedding, Prof Michio Kaku, A/Prof Alex Argyros, Henry Reich, Vanessa Hill, Dianna Cowern, George Ruiz and Mystery Cat. Views expressed in this video are not necessarily those of the amazing experts listed above but their advice was invaluable in making this video. Quantum simulation by PhET: https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/quantum-tunneling Music by Jake Chudnow: https://soundcloud.com/jakechudnow Amarante Music: https://soundcloud.com/amarantemusic DNA animations by http://www.wehi.tv Space animations by NASA Topic inspired by The Information - a history, a theory, a flood by James Gleick Filmed on location at the University of Sydney, Washington DC and LA
Views: 3609397 Veritasium
Your Mass is NOT From the Higgs Boson
 
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The Higgs Boson is awesome but it's NOT responsible for most of your mass! Thanks to audible.com for supporting this episode: http://bit.ly/ZJ5Q6z The Higgs mechanism is meant to account for the mass of everything, right? Well no, only the fundamental particles, which means that electrons derive their mass entirely from the Higgs interaction but protons and neutrons, made of quarks, do not. In fact the quark masses are so small that they only make up about 1% of the mass of the proton (and a similar fraction of the neutron). The rest of the mass comes from the energy in the gluon field. Gluons are massless, but there is so much energy in the field that by E=mc^2 there is a significant amount of mass there. This is where most of your mass comes from and the mass of virtually everything around you. Thanks to Professor Derek Leinweber for his great images, animations and explanations. Check out his site to find out more: http://bit.ly/ZZTKFP
Views: 2010410 Veritasium
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle Explained
 
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Heisenberg's uncertainty principle tells us that it is impossible to simultaneously measure the position and momentum of a particle with infinite precision. In our everyday lives we virtually never come up against this limit, hence why it seems peculiar. In this experiment a laser is shone through a narrow slit onto a screen. As the slit is made narrower, the spot on the screen also becomes narrower. But at a certain point, the spot starts becoming wider. This is because the photons of light have been so localised at the slit that their horizontal momentum must become less well defined in order to satisfy Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. I based this video on one by Prof. Walter Lewin of MIT: http://bit.ly/100Wk2K Henry (MinutePhysics) has previously made a video about Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle where he treats it as less spooky and more a consequence of waves: http://bit.ly/TV3xO5 Sixty Symbols has a great video on Planck's constant: http://bit.ly/11upebY Thanks to the University of Sydney for hosting this experiment, especially to Tom and Ralph for their assistance getting it working. Music: Kevin McLeod (Incompetech.com) Mirage and Danse Macabre
Views: 1538885 Veritasium
Why Do You Make People Look Stupid?
 
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Raw interviews: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8dcw98B2Nzg The question has arisen often enough that I thought I'd answer it. If you hold views that are consistent with the majority of the population, does that make you stupid? I don't think so. Science has uncovered a lot of counterintuitive things about the universe, so it's unsurprising that non-scientists hold beliefs inconsistent with science. But when we teach, we must take into account what the learners know, including their incorrect knowledge. That is the reason a lot of Veritasium videos start with the misconceptions. Want to read my PhD? You can download the full text here: http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/pdfs/research/super/PhD(Muller).pdf
Views: 1546691 Veritasium
Sparks from Falling Water: Kelvin's Thunderstorm
 
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The physics behind Kelvin's Thunderstorm explained. No, it is not a practical way of generating electricity, which is why we use turbines at hydro stations. This video goes into more detail about the phenomenon demonstrated in this Hunger Games collab video: http://youtu.be/Rwa26CXG1fc
Views: 1112832 Veritasium
Is Glass a Liquid?
 
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Stained glass is thicker at the bottom - so is it a liquid? Earth's mantle enables plate tectonics, so is it a liquid? Check out Audible: http://bit.ly/AudibleVe Sign up for the mailing list: http://www.veritasium.com Pitch drop experiment: http://www.thetenthwatch.com Thanks to Meg Rosenburg for scripting and animation, Raquel Nuno for filming and Aaron White for script consultation.
Views: 2941725 Veritasium
Regression to the Mean
 
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Check out Audible.com: http://bit.ly/ZJ5Q6z Filmed at Perimeter Institute: http://pitp.ca Is punishment or reward more effective for helping people learn. A lot of people would say different incentives motivate different people, or in different circumstances, but in psychology there is a sizable body of evidence that in order to learn skills, positive feedback is more effective. This fining has been verified not just with humans, but also with other species. It was strange then that after Daniel Kahneman discussed this research with Israeli fighter pilot instructors that he was met with resistance. They found the opposite was true: when they reprimanded a cadet for performing poorly, he invariably improved, but if they praised a cadet for an excellent performance, the next attempt was not as good. In order to solve this apparent contradiction we first need to understand regression to the mean. Teacher study: http://bit.ly/1h8puVT Rugby player study: http://bit.ly/1aNSrBI
Views: 1574313 Veritasium
Supercooled Water - Explained!
 
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Many videos on YouTube show water freezing almost instantaneously. This video shows you how to replicate the experiment and it explains how the phenomenon works. Molecular illustrations are courtesy of: PhET Interactive Simulations University of Colorado http://phet.colorado.edu.
Views: 2261822 Veritasium
World's First Electric Generator
 
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Huge thanks to the Royal Institution, Professor Frank James, and Katie Atmore for filming. For the Sixty Symbols version of this experiment click http://bit.ly/RGfLY5 Michael Faraday created the first electric generator in 1831 using a coil of wire and a permanent magnet. When the magnet was moved relative to the coil, current was induced in the coil. A similar experiment can be performed with a copper tube and a magnet. Although copper is not magnetic, it is a conductor. As the magnet falls through the pipe, the magnetic field changes over different sections of the pipe. This induces swirling currents (called eddy currents), which create a magetic field that opposes the motion of the magnet. This means work must be done to move the magnet through the pipe. This work generates the electrical energy, which is then dissipated as thermal energy in the pipe. The same basic principle is used to generate electricity throughout the world: moving a magnet inside copper coils. Experiments A Cappella http://bit.ly/TtdflV Where Did The Earth Come From http://bit.ly/VQBzQJ The Coastline Paradox http://bit.ly/TIapxM Microwave Grape Plasma http://bit.ly/QkCwUt Music by Kevin McLeod (http://www.incompetech.com) Sneaky Snitch and Danse Macabre
Views: 1763536 Veritasium
The Brightest Part of a Shadow is in the Middle
 
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Why is there a bright spot behind spherical objects? Be the first to find out about new projects: http://www.veritasium.com Filmed by Nathan Watkins and Raquel Nuno, animation by Meg Rosenburg. Music by Kevin MacLeod, http://www.incompetech.com 'Scissors' 'Mirage' ' Marty Gots a Plan'. Special thanks to Laura Vican for helping with the experiment. References: http://www.princeton.edu/~rvdb/images/Questar/PoissonSpot.html Why Toast Lands Jelly-side Down: Zen and the Art of Physics Demonstrations By Robert Ehrlich
Views: 1716432 Veritasium
Does Pressure Melt Ice?
 
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When pressure is applied to ice, its melting point is reduced so it turns to water. When the pressure is removed, however, it turns back into ice. This process is called 'regelation.' Big thanks to Art of Ice Sculptures www.icesculpture.com.au who donated the beautiful block of ice.
Views: 1484864 Veritasium
What Is The Magnus Force?
 
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Whenever an object spins through the air it experiences a 'Magnus Force' due to friction between the air and the object's surface. This force was originally identified while studying the trajectories of cannon balls (though earlier observations of this effect exist). The Magnus force is essential in most ball sports including golf, cricket, tennis, and baseball. At the end the ball demonstrations were conducted with a 100 mm diam polystyrene ball and the launcher was made by bending a long, thin, aluminum rod and bolting the ends to a block of wood as a handle. Music was provided by Kevin McLeod (incompetech.com) Scissors and a stock clip from FCP.
Views: 853478 Veritasium
Misconceptions About the Universe
 
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Can we see things travelling faster than light? Check out Audible: http://bit.ly/AudibleVe Music by Amarante "One Last Thing" http://bit.ly/VeAmarante Awesome animations by http://youtube.com/minutephysics Thanks to Prof. Geraint Lewis for input on earlier drafts of this video. The expanding universe is a complicated place. During inflation the universe expanded faster than light, but that's something that actually happens all the time, it's happening right now. This doesn't violate Einstein's theory of relativity since nothing is moving through space faster than light, it's just that space itself is expanding such that far away objects are receding rapidly from each other. Common sense would dictate that objects moving away from us faster than light should be invisible, but they aren't. This is because light can travel from regions of space which are superluminal relative to us into regions that are subluminal. So our observable universe is bigger than our Hubble sphere - it's limited by the particle horizon, the distance light could travel to us since the beginning of time as we know it.
Views: 4622655 Veritasium
How Does A Wing Actually Work?
 
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Lift is an important concept, not only in flying but also in sailing. This week I'm talking to Olympic Sailor, Hunter Lowden. But before I get to the physics of sailing I thought I would explain lift since it's generally poorly understood. minutephysics http://bit.ly/Muh6CC 1veritasium http://bit.ly/MrupzL efit30 http://bit.ly/O4CMme appchat http://bit.ly/NxAMlX erikaanear http://bit.ly/MdyUzQ whoisjimmy http://bit.ly/LtFzpW numberphile http://bit.ly/numberphile Music by Nathaniel Schroeder youtube: http://bit.ly/pakJLE myspace: http://mysp.ac/qtmZQj
Views: 1054137 Veritasium
Slinky Drop Answer
 
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Want more awesome HD slow-mo? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uiyMuHuCFo4 Slinky not long enough? Click here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JsytnJ_pSf8 How does a slinky fall when extended by its own weight and then released? We discover the surprising answer using a slow motion camera that records 300 frames per second. Answer link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oKb2tCtpvNU For a great explanation, check out Rhett Allain's analysis here: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2011/09/modeling-a-falling-slinky/
Views: 2218585 Veritasium
Slinky Drop Extended
 
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The answer to the question - what happens to a tennis ball tied to the bottom of a slinky after the top of the slinky is let go? For a great explanation, check out Rhett Allain's analysis here: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2011/09/modeling-a-falling-slinky/
Views: 903626 Veritasium
Radiation vs Radioactive Atoms
 
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There seems to be confusion about what radiation is and where it comes from. Many people believe it is the radiation that comes directly from nuclear power plants that poses a threat to public safety. In fact it is the radioactive atoms, which can escape in the event of an explosion, that pose a safety risk. They can be scattered by the wind over hundreds of kilometres. Then they may be ingested or breathed in. If they release radiation at this point, it is damaging to the body's molecules and cells because the radiation is delivered directly to tissues.
Views: 530850 Veritasium
Empty Space is NOT Empty
 
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An atom is mostly empty space, but empty space is mostly not empty. The reason it looks empty is because electrons and photons don't interact with the stuff that is there, quark and gluon field fluctuations. It actually takes energy to clear out space and make a true 'empty' vacuum. This seems incredibly counter-intuitive but we can make an analogy to a permanent magnet. When at low energies, like at room temperature, there is a magnetic field around the magnet due to the alignment of all the magnetic moments of the atoms. But if you add some energy to it by heating it, the particles gain thermal energy, which above the Curie temperature makes their magnetic moments randomly oriented and hence destroying the magnetic field. So in this case energy is needed to clear out the field, just as in the quantum vacuum. Special thanks to Professor Derek Leinweber, find out more about his research here: http://bit.ly/ZZTKFP
Views: 1568792 Veritasium
The Most Radioactive Places on Earth
 
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Who on Earth is exposed to the most ionizing radiation? Check out Audible: http://bit.ly/AudibleVe I'm filming a documentary for TV about how Uranium and radioactivity have shaped the modern world. It will be broadcast in mid-2015, details to come. The filming took me to the most radioactive places on Earth (and some places, which surprisingly aren't as radioactive as you'd think). Chernobyl and Fukushima were incredible to see as they present post-apocalyptic landscapes. I also visited nuclear power plants, research reactors, Marie Curie's institute, Einstein's apartment, nuclear medicine areas of hospitals, uranium mines, nuclear bomb sites, and interviewed numerous experts. Notes about measuring radiation: Sieverts are a measure of 'effective dose' - that means they measure the biological impact of the energy transferred to tissues from radiation. Obviously I owe a debt to the fantastic chart made by xkcd, which inspired my visual approach to this video. https://xkcd.com/radiation/ DOSES MAY VARY The level of radiation varies widely around the world depending mainly on altitude and geology (excluding nuclear accidents). Estimates of particular doses also vary. All numbers reported in this video should be taken as order of magnitude only. The most contentious claim may be that smokers receive the highest dose of ionizing radiation. This is not a whole body dose, but a dose to the lungs as specified in the video. References are here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health_effects_of_tobacco http://www.rmeswi.com/36.html Special thanks to: Physics Girl: https://www.youtube.com/physicswoman MinutePhysics: https://www.youtube.com/minutephysics Natalie Tran: https://www.youtube.com/communitychannel Bionerd23: https://www.youtube.com/bionerd23 Nigel and Helen for feedback on earlier drafts of this video. Music is "Stale Mate"
Views: 9579587 Veritasium
Why Women Are Stripey
 
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Epigenetics means women have different active x-chromosomes in different cells. Animation courtesy of http://wehi.tv Music by Amarante: http://bit.ly/VeAmarante Animation: Etsuko Uno Art and Technical Direction: Drew Berry Sound Design: Francois Tetaz & Emma Bortignon Scientific Consultation: Marnie Blewitt Courtesy of Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research: http://wehi.tv When a female embryo is four days old it consists of just 100 cells. At this point the x-chromosome from Mom and the one from Dad are both active. But in order for proper development to occur, one of the x chromosomes must be switched off. Through a tiny molecular battle within each cell, one of the x-chromosomes wins and remains active while the loser is deactivated. This is done by wrapping the DNA tighter around proteins, modifying histone tails, and DNA methylation - molecular markers to indicate this DNA should not be read. What's surprising is that it's pretty random which x chromosome wins - sometimes it's Mom's and sometimes it's Dad's. So when a female is just 100 cells big, her cells have a mix of active x-chromosomes, some from Mom and some from Dad.
Views: 4391683 Veritasium
Would You Take This Bet?
 
07:19
How much would it take for you to risk $10? Check out Audible: http://bit.ly/AudibleVe Can you solve this? http://bit.ly/248Ve Regression to the mean: http://bit.ly/VeRTTM Help translate Veritasium videos into other languages: http://veritasium.subtitl.us Psychological literature shows that we are more sensitive to small losses and than small gains, with most people valuing a loss around 1.5-2.5 times as much as a gain. This means that we often turn down reasonable opportunities for fear of the loss. However over the course of our lives we will be exposed to many risks and opportunities and this invariably means that taking every small reasonable bet will leave us better off than saying no to all of them. NOTE: The video is not saying to accept every bet, only those with reasonable odds (preferably in your favour), and those which if you lose would not cause significant financial or other damage. In those cases it is wise to be loss averse! Filmed by Adrian Tan Thanks to Physics Girl for suggestions on previous versions of this video. https://www.youtube.com/physicswoman
Views: 3919814 Veritasium
Indestructible Coating?!
 
07:09
Used in everything from bullet-proof vests to the walls of the Pentagon, polyurea's strength comes from its long-chain molecules. Check out How Ridiculous: http://bit.ly/VeHowRidiculous Snatoms magnetic molecules: http://bit.ly/VeSnatoms Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Special thanks to South Bay Line-X: http://southbaylinex.com/ Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Filmed by Prashanth Venkataramanujam SFX by A Shell in the Pit
Views: 2130800 Veritasium
Is This What Quantum Mechanics Looks Like?
 
07:41
Silicone oil droplets provide a physical realization of pilot wave theories. Check out Smarter Every Day: http://bit.ly/VeSmarter Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Huge thanks to: Dr. Stephane Perrard, Dr Matthieu Labousse, Pr Emmanuel Fort, Pr Yves Couder and their group site http://dualwalkers.com/ Prof. John Bush: http://math.mit.edu/~bush/ Dr. Daniel Harris Prof. Stephen Bartlett Looking Glass Universe: http://bit.ly/LGUVe Workgroup Bohemian Mechanics: http://www.mathematik.uni-muenchen.de/~bohmmech/ Filmed by Raquel Nuno Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Thanks to Google Making and Science for helping me pursue my #sciencegoals. If you want to try this experiment, instructions are here: link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12650-016-0383-5 The standard theory of quantum mechanics leaves a bit to be desired. As Richard Feynman put it, "I think I can safely say that no one understands quantum mechanics." This is because observations of experiments have led us to a theory that contradicts common sense. The wave function contains all the information that is knowable about a particle, yet it can only be used to calculate probabilities of where a particle will likely turn up. It can't give us an actual account of where the particle went or where it will be at some later time. Some have suggested that this theory is incomplete. Maybe something is going on beneath the radar of standard quantum theory and somehow producing the appearance of randomness and uncertainty without actually being random or uncertain. Theories of this sort are called hidden variable theories because they propose entities that aren't observable. One such theory is pilot wave theory, first proposed by de Broglie, but later developed by Bohm. The idea here is that a particle oscillates, creating a wave. It then interacts with the wave and this complex interaction determines its motion. Experiments using silicone oil droplets on a vibrating bath provide a remarkable physical realization of pilot wave theories. They give us a physical picture of what the quantum world might look like if this is what's going on - and this theory is still deterministic. The particle is never in two places at once and there is no randomness. Edited by Robert Dahlem Sound design by A Shell in the Pit
Views: 2612845 Veritasium
Learned Helplessness
 
08:51
Learned helplessness can prevent people from achieving their goals, something I've experienced first hand. Check out Audible: http://bit.ly/AudibleVe More walk and talk videos: http://bit.ly/2Veritasium
Views: 1264162 Veritasium
Is Our Food Becoming Less Nutritious?
 
07:30
The nutrient content of food is declining. Is it because of soil depletion, selective breeding, or... something else? Watch my new documentary, VITAMANIA: http://ve42.co/vita I came across this story as I was making the film Vitamania. When you ask sellers of vitamins why you should take vitamin supplements even if you eat a healthy diet, they will say because our food doesn't contain all the nutrients it once did. This is supposedly due to soil depletion, cold storage, food ripening off the vine, and global transport of out-of-season foods. And to an extent this is true. Foods contain the greatest amount of nutrients if they are eaten soon after they are harvested. An unexpected source of nutrient decline is the increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It causes plants to grow faster and bulk up on carbs but at the expense of other nutrients, so in percentage terms the amount of nutrients are actually declining. For now this decline is modest so supplementing with vitamin pills is probably unnecessary for most people with a healthy diet but it may be a concern in future. Thanks to Kate Pappas & Chris Kamen for writing, producing and filming this video with me Edited by Lucy McCallum Sound mix by Wayne Hyett Fact Checking by Calvin Lee and Claire Smith Thanks to the Collingwood Children’s Farm and Glenn Fitzgerald from the University of Melbourne & Agriculture Victoria Further Reading: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889157516302113 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15637215/?ncbi_mmode=std http://soils.wisc.edu/facstaff/barak/poster_gallery/minneapolis2000a/ https://www.politico.com/agenda/story/2017/09/13/food-nutrients-carbon-dioxide-000511 http://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-05-24/scientists-warning-rice-may-become-less-nutritious/9792822
Views: 557171 Veritasium
Spinning Sphere of Molten Sodium
 
08:27
An experiment on how turbulent convection in Earth's core makes a magnetic field Get a free audiobook with a free 30 day trial at http://www.audible.com/Veritasium or text Veritasium to 500-500 Huge thanks to Prof. Dan Lathrop and team: http://ve42.co/Lathrop Companion video to explain Earth's magnetic fields in more detail: https://youtu.be/lWHxmJf6U3M Australians! I'm on my way. I'll be doing live shows in Perth, Sydney and Melbourne. Details and tickets here: http://ve42.co/tour Find out more about the film Vitamania: http://ve42.co/VITA Special thanks to Brady Haran and Periodic Videos for sodium vs water footage. Original clip is here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzEOL-N2cbw Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski I learned a lot in making this video and the one on my second channel with Prof. Jon Arnou. I changed a lot of my preconceptions, specifically I thought: 1. That the Earth's magnetic field was a passive thing - it shouldn't need a continuous input of energy to maintain itself (that seemed reasonable to me because the magnetic field has been around for a long time and it seems mostly stable). But as it turns out, the Earth is a giant electromagnet, and so of course those currents dissipate their energy as they encounter resistance in the liquid metal through which they flow. So the energy to continuously create these currents comes from the kinetic energy of the liquid metal flows in the Earth's outer core. 2. If it's convection, I'm thinking hot things rising, cooler things falling. But apparently the main effect driving convection is the compositional differences at the boundary with the Earth's inner core. This is because of the differential freezing at the boundary. Things like iron freeze into the inner core, while elements like sulfur do not. Hence the pockets of lighter material which then rise outwards. 3. I didn't get why the fluid motion was necessary for the generation of the magnetic field. I mean if it's a conducting liquid, it can conduct currents whether it moves or not. But the key is that the liquid metal can 'trap' magnetic fields. I imagine this like how iron channels magnetic fields. Then once these fields are channeled, they can be pulled and stretched, making more magnetic field. 4. Fluids operate very differently in rotating frames of reference. This is something I didn't intuitively grasp. But, as fluids move from the inner core outwards, those particles are moving much more slowly in the direction of rotation than the matter that has been there for a long time, which means the convection currents get deflected and form helices. Music by Kevin MacLeod http://incompetech.com Brandenburg Concerto No4
Views: 999140 Veritasium
How Far Away is the Moon? (The Scale of the Universe)
 
01:50
If the Earth were the size of a basketball and the moon a tennis ball, how far apart would they be? Diagrams that are not to scale make us think that they're closer than they really are.
Views: 1532808 Veritasium
Five Firsts for Mars InSight
 
05:34
Mars InSight will be the first to detect seismic activity on Mars’ surface, first to measure rate of heat transmitted from interior, first to dig nearly 5m down, first to measure magnetic fields on Mars’ surface, and first to use a robotic arm to place instruments on the surface of Mars (assuming it lands of course…) If you want to watch the InSight landing “live” (with 4-minute speed of light time delay), go to: https://ve42.co/insight Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animations courtesy of NASA Script and Filming with Raquel Nuno Editing and graphics by Ignat Berbeci
Views: 532930 Veritasium
Our Greatest Delusion
 
07:39
I am working on some big new projects I'm excited to share with you! Join the Veritasium email list so you don't miss out: http://eepurl.com/bv2eZb So this video is a little different from most of the others. The channel is an element of truth, after all, not an element of science. This is my truth. It may not be everyone's but that's ok too. Clips included were from: Chernobyl and Pripyat - drone shots from shooting Uranium Obsidian dome, California Panum Crater El Capitan The Pyramids of Giza Toronto buildings The Holocaust Memorial in Berlin Abu Simbel temple at Aswan, Egypt Sydney Harbour Milky way time-lapse from the badlands of South Australia Sunset over Warrnambool, Victoria Big Bang animation courtesy of NASA Sunrise over Bondi Water off New Caledonia Great white sharks in the Neptune Islands, South Australia Crosswalk at Town Hall Sydney EDUtubers at the YouTube EDU summit in San Francisco Concert in Sydney Jetpacking in Western Sydney Vi's triangles at Perimeter Institute, Waterloo Canada Aurora Borealis north of Fairbanks Alaska Sagrada Familia, Barcelona, Spain Hiking with MinutePhysics in Washington State Music Licensed from cuesongs.com "The Secret Tower" by Nicholas O
Views: 2009617 Veritasium
Neutron Star Merger Gravitational Waves and Gamma Rays
 
05:26
The merging of two neutron stars was detected by gravitational waves and then by telescopes in all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is a historic detection as it demonstrates: - the first gravitational waves detected from inspiraling neutron stars - the first joint observation by gravitational wave and electromagnetic wave astronomy - identification of a gamma ray burst in conjunction with merging neutron stars - how gravitational waves and gamma rays can be used together to locate their source All evidence so far indicates that the data support General Relativity. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Curational, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Corvi Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Graphics from: Jets and Debris from a Neutron Star Collision This animation captures phenomena observed over the course of nine days following the neutron star merger known as GW170817. They include gravitational waves (pale arcs); a near-light-speed jet that produced gamma rays (magenta); expanding debris from a "kilonova" that produced ultraviolet (violet), optical and infrared (blue-white to red) emission; and, once the jet directed toward us expanded into our view from Earth, X-rays (blue). Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/CI Lab Virgo Helps Localize Gravitational-Wave Signals Sky localizations of gravitational-wave signals detected by LIGO beginning in 2015 (GW150914, LVT151012, GW151226, GW170104), and, more recently, by the LIGO-Virgo network (GW170814, GW170817). After Virgo came online in August 2017, scientists were better able to localize the gravitational-wave signals. The background is an optical image of the Milky Way. The localizations of GW150914, LVT151012, and GW170104 wrap around the celestial sphere, so the sky map is shown with a translucent dome. Credit: LIGO/Virgo/NASA/Leo Singer (Milky Way image: Axel Mellinger) Variety of Gravitational Waves and a Chirp The signal measured by LIGO and Virgo from the neutron star merger GW170817 is compared here to previously detected binary black hole mergers. All signals are shown starting at 30 Hertz, and the progression of GW170817 is shown in real time, accompanied by its conversion to audio heard at the end of the movie. GW170817 was observable for more than 30 times longer than any previous gravitational-wave signal. Credit: LIGO/University of Oregon/Ben Farr LIGO is funded by the NSF, and operated by Caltech and MIT, which conceived of LIGO and led the Initial and Advanced LIGO projects. Financial support for the Advanced LIGO project was led by the NSF with Germany (Max Planck Society), the U.K. (Science and Technology Facilities Council) and Australia (Australian Research Council) making significant commitments and contributions to the project. More than 1,200 scientists and some 100 institutions from around the world participate in the effort through the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, which includes the GEO Collaboration and the Australian collaboration OzGrav. Additional partners are listed at http://ligo.org/partners.php The Virgo collaboration consists of more than 280 physicists and engineers belonging to 20 different European research groups: six from Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in France; eight from the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Italy; two in the Netherlands with Nikhef; the MTA Wigner RCP in Hungary; the POLGRAW group in Poland; Spain with the University of Valencia; and the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, the laboratory hosting the Virgo detector near Pisa in Italy, funded by CNRS, INFN, and Nikhef.
Views: 927434 Veritasium
The Truth About Toilet Swirl - Southern Hemisphere
 
08:03
SYNCHRONIZE WITH DESTIN’S VIDEO: http://bit.ly/NorthernSwirl Both videos on one page (for desktop): http://bit.ly/ToiletSwirl Subscribe to Smarter Every Day: http://bit.ly/SubscribeSED Click to tweet: http://bit.ly/ToiletSwirlTWT Some notes: We each repeated the experiment 3 times, and got the same results every time. For those of you who might be skeptical, great! A right circular prismatic kiddie pool is only $10 and you can do the experiment for yourself at your latitude. There's really no reason you shouldn't do it for yourself. Veritasium on Instagram: http://instagram.com/veritasium Patreon Support Link: http://www.patreon.com/veritasium Twitter: http://twitter.com/veritasium http://www.facebook.com/veritasium Smarter Every Day Instagram: http://instagram.com/smartereveryday Patreon Support Link: http://www.patreon.com/smartereveryday Twitter: http://twitter.com/smartereveryday www.facebook.com/SmarterEveryDay Gordon McGladdery did all of the sound design for the video. We used two songs from other artists (licensed of course). Derek split the first one up so it fades from video to video, and Gordon split the instruments up on the second one. There are violins on one video and percussion on the other for example. It's really neat. The neat earth animation at the beginning and the synchronizing timer was made by http://eisenfeuer.com/. He also made still images of the earth from the top and the bottom. Thanks to Vanessa for filming in Sydney: http://youtube.com/braincraftvideo MORE INFO: There was a study performed at MIT years ago (http://web.mit.edu/hml/ncfmf/09VOR.pdf) that explained the physics involved. We repeated some of these demonstrations, but on opposite sides of the globe…and in a way that can be easily understood. This site is a great resource on the Coriolis effect and ways people have gotten it wrong: http://www.ems.psu.edu/~fraser/Bad/Ba...
Views: 2552039 Veritasium
Why Are Astronauts Weightless?
 
03:41
http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/team/default.htm I have been working with Catalyst on ABC1 to bring some Veritasium to Australian TV. In this segment I ask why astronauts in the space station are weightless. The most common answer is because there is no gravity in space. But of course there is gravity in space, especially where the space station is located (only about 400km from Earth's surface). So astronauts still experience a gravitational pull - it's just that they and the space station are in free fall so they are accelerating together towards the Earth. The space station doesn't crash into the Earth because of its orbital velocity - it's going 28,000 km/h so as it falls, the Earth curves away from it.
Views: 462230 Veritasium
How To Make Colour With Holes
 
05:38
Scientists are being inspired by nature to design the next generation of security devices. Arrays of nanoscale holes create beautiful reflected colours that are almost impossible to forge. This video was supported by TechNyou - check out their series on logical fallacies: http://bit.ly/WBsD31 Soon these nanoscale security devices could replace holograms. They are many times more reflective than holograms, and although the structures are smaller scale, they are lower aspect ratio and therefore easy to manufacture in bulk. The electron wiggle simulation is from PhET, the best physics simulations ever: http://phet.colorado.edu Special thanks to Thomas from Copenhagen who showed me around the city including the science museum where he assisted with the soap bubble demonstration. Clint Landrock is the Chief Technology Officer for Nanotech Securities: http://www.nanosecurity.ca Music is "Firefly in a Fairytale" by Gareth Coker
Views: 1230674 Veritasium

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